Dwight D. Eisenhower
Election of 1952
- Democratic nomination- Adlai E. Stevenson
- Republican nomination- Dwight D. Eisenhower; VP- Richard Nixon
- Nixon was accused of tapping government funds, Eisenhower seriously thought about taking him off of ballot
- Nixon kept on ballot after delivering Checkers Speech- a pity-full speech named after his dog, Checkers
Election of 1956
- Democratic nomination- Adlai E. Stevenson again
- Democrats hard pressed to find an issue to attack Eisenhower with, and voters liking the prosperity they had
- Nuclear weapons so highly intensified the tension that both countries agreed to stop the production of nuclear weapons
- July 1958- Lebanon approached US for aid under the Eisenhower Doctrine- said that we would help countries militarily and economically prevent Communism from taking them over. We helped without ending a single life.
- Khrushchev approached UN with a complete disarmament program, met with President Eisenhower at Camp David
- It seemed like a peaceful resolution could happen- the "spirit of Camp David"
- When an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over Russia, no more peaceful resolution
- Joseph McCarthy accused many government officials of being Communists'
- Was a Republican senator
- Got the public wrapped up in his hunts- McCarthyism
- Made a big mistake- attacking the military
- The Army attacked back with televised trials- the public saw the lack of evidence McCarthy had and soon disbanded from following him
Desegregation of the South
- Black life governed by Jim Crow laws- separate social arrangements that kept them separate, economically inferior and politically powerless against the whites
- Sweatt v. Painter (1950)- Supreme Court ruled that separate professional schools for blacks did not meet the equality test
- Rosa Parks- refused to give up a white seat on a bus in Montgomery. Her refusal sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott
- Montgomery Bus Boycott- a yearlong black boycott of city busses and showed blacks would no longer submit to segregation
- Dr. Martin Luther King- pastor, great orator, passion for justice made him the leader of the black revolution. Created the Southern Christian Leadership Conference- a joined effort of black churches on behalf of black rights.
- Little Rock Crisis- the governor of Arkansas Oral Faubus mobilized the National Guard to prevent 9 black students from enrolling in Central High School. Eisenhower sent troops to escort the children to class.
- Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)- Supreme Court ruled that segregation in schools was unconstitutional. This reversed the ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).
- Civil Rights Act of 1957- set up a permanent Civil Rights Commission to investigate violations of civil rights and authorized injunctions to protect blacks' voting rights
- Operation Wetback- Eisenhower rounded up millions of illegal Mexican immigrants after the Mexican government worried that they were taking the jobs that the braceros were coming over legally for
- "Indian New Deal"- Eisenhower wanted to terminate the tribes as legal entities and wanted to assimilate like in the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. After most tribes refused, the plan was dropped.
- Interstate Highway Act- 1956, created tons of jobs and sped the suburbanization of America with many miles of highways being built
- Early 1950's- nationalist movement trying to get rid of French in Indochina, including Vietnam leader Ho Chi Minh who became increasingly Communist
- May 1954- French fort at Dienbienphu was trapped. Eisenhower did not intervene, scared of another war directly following the Korean War
- Dienbienphu fell to Nationalists- leaving the pro-Western government South of the 17th parallel, led by Ngo Dinh Diem
- US promised aid to Diem regime
- October 4, 1957- Soviets launch Sputnik I- a satellite
- A month later, they launch Sputnik II
- Concerns: if Soviets could launch a satellite, they could attack us with missiles; is our education sufficient?
- Eisenhower started NASA- focused on creating missiles and satellites
- National Defense and Education Act- authorized loans to needy college students for the improvement of teaching sciences and languages