30 Years War
The Thirty Years war was a series of conflicts fought amongst many european powers. The conflict took place between 1618 and 1648, with Ferdinand the II, the prospective king of the Holy Roman Empire, enforcing the entire domain of the Holy Roman Empire into Catholicism. This caused Bohemia and Austria to rebell, the formation of this rebellion and the conflict that ensued served as the most clear start of the conflict. The conflict began escalate and spread after Ferdinand defeated the rebellion and Sweden and Denmark saw this as an opportunity to take German land. Ultimately, this conflict was between the Holy Roman Empire and the Habsburg, which is a chain of Protestant states primarily consisting of the Netherland and Sweden. There was a similar conflict between France and another Habsburg in Spain.
Root Cause: differences in religious viewpoints and practices among European nations and territories.
Direct Cause: Ferdinand II enforcing Catholicism on Bohemia and Austria.
1618 - Start of the War with the Defenestration of Prague
1619 - Bohemia doesn't give the crown to Emperor Ferdinand and Emperor Defeats Bohemia and enforces catholicism
1623 - Protestant states ally against emperor. Emperor Wins
1624 - Protestant country Dutch(Netherlands) and Catholic Spain join
1625 - Danish forces try to attack Emperor forces and give up in 1629
1630 - Sweden Moves into enemy territory and wins many battles
1632 - Aldolphus is killed in The Battle of Luten
1634 - Wallenstein is murdered
1635 - Catholic France finances Protestant countries Holland and Sweden
1639 - Catholic Spain loses control of the Atlantic sea route.
1648 - Emperor surrenders: Treaty of Westphalia
Emperor Ferdinand II
Holy Roman Emperor and member of the house of Habsburg. King of Bohemia. He was trying to restore Catholicism and suppress Protestantism.
He was from Sweden and was regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of all time. Most notable victory was The Battle of Breitenfeld. He unfortunately died in The Battle of Lutzen.
Albrecht Von Wallenstein
Was the main man like Adolphus, but fought for the Emperor, not against him. Was a great military commander himself and won many battles for Ferdinand II
Emperor Ferdinand II
Treaty of Westphalia which was signed in 1648
Decline in power of the Catholic Church
Calvinism was legally recognized
Protestant princes allowed to continue religious practices
Rise of the Swedish Empire
States inside the Holy Roman Empire were at peace
Outcome helped to end the age of religious wars
Dutch got independence from Spain
Creation of a new system of political order in central Europe
The Thirty Years War was mainly focused in the divided Holy Roman Empire. The war was between the Protestant and Catholic states. The war was ended by the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia. This gave the ruler of the land the decision of which religion will be practiced in his lands.