The Function of Blood
By Cassie Schultz
- Plasma is the liquid part of the blood it is water with many substances dissolved in it. It is also the part that waste dissolves into.
- Plasma is 55% of all blood, plasma itself breaks down into 7% protein, 91% water, 2% other solutes
- Plasma looks like a yellow liquid
- It helps plasma remain in homeostasis by keeping nutrient, protein and waste levels in balance
- Plasma protein-The most abundant type of solute in plasma
- serum- Plasma minus its clotting factors
- albumins- Helps to thicken and maintain the blood
- globulins- Includes the antibodies
- fibrinogen- Necessary for blood clotting
- prothrombin- Necessary for blood clotting
Red Blood Cells
- Red blood cells carry oxygen through out the body to various organs and dispose of carbon dioxide.
- Red blood cells are about 42% of the blood cells in our body
- Red blood cells look kind of like inter tubes, they have a red color when they have a significant amount of hemoglobin they also don't have a nucleus so they have enough space to carry oxygen and other gases through out the blood.
- RBC's help to keep your body in balance by regulating your oxygen and carbon dioxide levels
- erythrocyte- Another word for red blood cells
- hemoglobin- the gas transporting protein molecule that makes up 95% of a red cell.
- oxyhemoglobin- hemoglobin after being exposed to oxygen
- carbaminohemoglobin- hemoglobin that is carrying a slight amount of CO2
White blood cells (Leukocytes)
- White blood cells are like first responders for our immune system, they are produced in the thymus which is located in the neck
- White blood cells only make up about 1% of our blood
- Leukocytes are made up of 60%-70% Neutrophilis, 20%-30% Lymphocytes, 3%-8%, Eosinophils 2%-4%, Basophils .5%-1%
- White blood cells look like membranes with a nucleated center that center varies depending on the type of white blood cell your looking at.
- White blood cells keep your body in homeostasis by keeping your body healthy.
- Neutrophils- the most numerous and active WBC's called phagocytes they protect the body from invading microorganisms
- Eosinphils- protect ageist parasitic worms
- Basophils-this is the WBC that is released during chemical histamine
- Monocytes- the most aggressive WBC's due to their size they are able to engulfing large bacteria
- Leukocytes- help prevent against infection by secreting specialized proteins called antibodies which focuses on destroying particular bacteria, viruses or chemical toxins.
- Macrophages- specialized monocytes that grow several times there size and migrate out of the blood stream.
- leukopenia- is a disease that results in an extremely low white blood cell count
- Leukocytosis- is when the white blood cell count is abnormally high this causes bacterial infections
- granulocytes vs. agranulocytes- granulocytes is the presents of granules where as agranulocytes is the absent of granules, the absence of it does not cause and increase to the WBC count.
- Lymphocytes- Are the main white blood cell there are two different types there are B cells which is the less aggressive of the two and then there is T cells which is a more aggressive.
- Platelets or thrombocytes are essential to blood clotting or coagulation in our body they plug up torn or cut blood vessels
- Platelets make up less then 1% of blood
- Platelets look similar to irregular seeds with a bluish color their clotting characteristic is what makes them so vital to our blood.
- Platelets keep your body in balance by keeping the right amount of blood inside your body, it functions by going through a chain of rapid fire reactions
- thrombocytes- is another word for platelets
- prothrombin activator- It is formed when clotting factors react rapidly with other factors already present in the plasma
- thrombin-is the next level of clotting that takes place given that there is enough calcium present
- fibrinogen- reacts with thrombin to form a fibrous gel
- fibrin- the fibrous gel
- coagulation- blood clotting
- thrombus- when a clot stays in the place where it is formed
- thrombosis-when part of the clot dislodges and circulates through the blood stream
- embolus-The dislodged part of the blood clot
- embolism- The condition in which your blood clots dislodge. It then gets stuck in an artery, which can be deadly, some types of embolism that we are familiar with include a stroke or a heart attack
Blood Characteristics overall
Amount of blood in our body
4 to 5 liters in average female
5 to 6 liters in average male
8 % of total body weight
- It is red after it has been oxidized and blue without oxygen
- it is thicker then water but dehydration can definitely have an effect on its consistency
- It is made of the four parts listed above.
- Blood is made in red bone marrow which is found in primarily flat bones such as the pelvis, ribs, ect. also in spongy bone which is found at the end of long bone. The cells in the bone marrow that makes the blood is called Hematopoietic Stem Cells.