Unit 18

P1/P2/M1 - Sports Injuries

Main Objectives

  • P1/P2 - Task 1 - 1. Produce a booklet aimed at coaches describing what is meant by extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors in relation to sports injuries and discuss the difference between them (P1).

    2. In your booklet explain how preventative measures can be used to minimize these risk factors (P2).

  • M1 - Task 2 - Explain the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors and explain each of the factors identified on task 1, giving further information for each example provided stating why it could be considered a risk. Discuss preventative measures in detail, giving examples to suggest how the measures would reduce risk and explaining the importance/effect of each measure in preventing sports injuries from occurring (M1)

Intrinsic risk factors

As a coach it'll be good to know that These injury factors are those that have actually come from yourself so the individual you maybe coaching, this first happens by involving aspects of their physical makeup. For example a number of bio-mechanical factors, starting with their own flexibility (too much / too little) could work out to their disadvantage when performing sports, strength (muscle imbalances or weaknesses), leg length differences, posture, foot shape and movement during exercise, and others can all be key factors in causing injury to the sports participant. For example a very good sports performer as Michael Owen he still suffered from muscle imbalance and weakness in his knees which put him out of football for a long period of time.

with posture individuals can be born with difficulties like; Scoliosis- this is caused by an abnormal curve of the vertebrae. It has a lateral imbalance or sideways bending of the spine. The vertebrae has a normal curve when looking for the side but actually looking from the front is straight.

Kyphosis- this is a progressive spinal disorder that has an excessive arching of the upper part of the spine. This disorder can cause some form of deformity such as hunchback.

Lordosis- this is an excessive inward curve of the vertebrae. This can occur at the lower part of the spine.


One important factor which i feel is very important to address is preparation you've got to make sure your players are up for playing and are feel good, with training sessions and good warm ups for example, because its awful if you have poor preparation. Poor preparation (both physically and mentally) can also resort in increased risk of injury if you're not in the right mind-set you wont perform to your best and your technique will not be their and your game will pass you by if you're physically not fit or coming back from injury.


The individuals posture could be bad and they could get injured from use of equipment also the Levels of fitness can be affecting your team members performances, for example you can over train and cause muscle aches and pains leading to bad performances or you could do little training and not be up to the pace of the game.


Another risk factor that needs to be took under consideration is When not having enough sleep before a training session or when playing in a competition can be resulted as a risk to the individuals. one other thing that you need to think about is not being fully focused in session or being over enthusiastic with other participates which can also cause injuries and hazards. When one of the individuals you may be coaching isn't having enough sleep before a competition it can decrease a person’s focus and motivation, these two factors can then lower the levels of someones success. A main factor of preparing for physical activity is nutrition, which means having a good balanced diet and also hydration, making sure you have the right amount of fluids in your body. Not eating or drinking enough before a training session or competition can result in a massive decrease in sports performance and can cause major risks to the body.

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Coaching - is linked with incorrect techniques as you require a coach who knows about the sport meaning that they can teach you the correct techniques and if the coaches don't communicate and approach you correctly you'll never learn what you're doing wrong and how to improve your technique, because if you had a coach who has no or minimal knowledge of the sport then they could teach you the wrong techniques from a young age which could then become difficult to adjust to the correct technique.


Incorrect technique

Incorrect technique, such as methods of lifting and handling, can cause injury.
having the incorrect technique can cause sporting injuries and not only could you get an acute injury but you could also be building up on a chronic injury which could later on ruin your sporting career. An example of how you could suffer from an acute injury by not having the correct technique would be in rugby, players are always diving in at each other, making tackles and getting hurt, if you have the incorrect technique and tackle with your head too high or too low, you could suffer from a very serious injury due to you having the wrong technique and not only cause serious injury to yourself but others around you. An example of how an individual may build on the development of a chronic injury would be that a footballer who has the wrong technique on how to pass a ball, in a football match you pass the ball quite a lot and with them having a repetitive action of the incorrect technique they could be causing tissue damage and sprains on your foot or ankle, which could be a severe injury when the injury has fully developed into its worse state for the individual (when the individual notices that he is suffering from a tissue injury).


Environmental factors

Weather can affect playing conditions which can be a risk factor. Weather can make playing conditions slippery, too hard or soft and can alter the way the game is played which can put players at greater risk of injury. The individual may not perform the same as they usually do which would have a negative impact on the individuals performance and them causing a sporting injury for themselves.


Clothing and footwear

The wrong footwear and clothing or damaged footwear and clothing can put athletes at risk of injury. For example a footballer wearing Futsal shoes on a 3G/ Astro-turf surface they'll be at risk of slipping and twisting their ankles or knees as they wouldn't have the right grip on their playing shoes and their performances would be negatively affected.
Protective clothing is used to protect you and aid is decreasing the risk of injury, meaning that it should be worn! An example of protective clothing would be a helmet in racing sports, the helmet is there to help reduce the risk of causing brain damage and/or damaging the skull in the event of a crash. The same with helmets in american football and the padding on their shoulders so the impact is less and it wouldn't cause serious damage to the individual.

Equipment should always be checked before participating in a sport, an example of needing to check the equipment could be in football, the goals must be properly looked at by the ref and he must then determine whether they are safe and properly fixed.


Safety hazards

All staff and athletes should be aware of the risks associated with their activity and take necessary precautions. This will include checking the environment before a game, checking equipment, providing suitable first aid and a safety checklist for examples risk assessments which are usually taken, they need to be taken on a regular basis.

for example in football If the risk assessment is not taken then as already stated, a player could go in for a slide tackle and yet come off with a very large, deep cut down their leg as they could have gone sliding across grass or anything else with a sharp edge, this is why a risk assessment must be done and safety hazards must be put into place.