By: Regan, Grace, Cody, Caden, and Reese

Essential Questions

  1. How is water involved in the reactions of biomolecules
  2. How are the four biomolecules structurally different
  3. How does each of the four biomolecules function in living things
  4. How are macromolecules formed and how are they broken apart
  5. How does nutrition play a role in maintaining homeostasis

Overweight and obesity affects more than 3 in 4 Hispanics (78.8%) and African Americans (76.7%).

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Obesity, Nutrition, and Metabolism

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About 2 in 3 Americans (66.7%) are considered to be overweight or obese.

Children and Adults

  • Children who are overweight or obese are at increased risk for developing diabetes and heart disease; they are also likely to stay overweight or obese into adulthood, placing them at increased risk for serious chronic diseases.
  • Regular physical activity can lower an adult’s risk of depression.
  • Adults who maintain a healthy weight are less likely to die prematurely.

How Nutrition Affects Metabolism

  • Small, frequent, meals help keep your metabolism high
  • When you wait too long between meals, your metabolic rate slows down to compensate.
  • Eating frequently also helps you eat less at regular meals.

About half of African Americans (49.5%), and more than 1 in 3 Hispanics (39.1%) and Americans (34.3%) are considered to be obese.

What is Metabolism

  • Our bodies obtain the energy needed from food through metabolism.
  • Metabolism is the chemical reaction in our body's cells that convert fuel from food into the energy we need to move, think, and grow
  • During this complex biochemical process, the calories in foods and beverages that you consume are combined with oxygen to release energy
  • This occurs even when you're at rest, because your body needs energy for breathing, blood circulation, etc.
  • The number of calories used to carry out these basic functions is known as your metabolic rate, or metabolism

The Percentage of the Population that is Obese in Different Countries

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Nutrition and Homeostasis

  • Saturated, monosaturated, and polysaturated fatty acids, or fats are found in all types of food
  • Your body needs a certain amount of each kind for functions that promote homeostasis, such as body insulation, and blood clotting
  • A balanced diet will also help

Extreme obesity affects more than 1 in 10 African Americans (13.1%), and about 1 in 20 Americans (5.7%) and Hispanics (5%).

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11.6% of Asian Americans are obese

39.9% of American Indians and Alaska Natives are obese

Metabolic Processes and Enzymes

  • After food is eaten, enzymes in your digestive system break down these proteins into amino acids, fats into fatty acids, and carbohydrates into simple sugars
  • Anabolism (uh-NAB-uh-liz-um), or constructive metabolism, is about building and storing.
  • Catabolism (kuh-TAB-uh-liz-um), or destructive metabolism, is the process that produces the energy required for all activity in the cells.
  • In this process, cells break down large molecules (mostly carbohydrates and fats) to release energy.

Biomolecules and their Role in the Metabolic Process and Obesity

What are Biomolecules

  • A biomolecule is any molecule that is present in living organisms,
  • This includes large macromolecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic acids.
  • They can be grouped into categories such as
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic acids

The Four Major Classes of Biomolecules are...


  • Proteins are responsible for many enzymatic functions in the cell
  • Proteins are composed of amino acids.
  • All enzymes are proteins
  • Can be found in meats, beans, whole grains, eggs, dairy products
  • Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
  • Not consuming proper amounts of protein can cause you to over eat things such as lipids and carbohydrates, which leads to weight gain.

Nucleic Acid

  • The biomolecule responsible for our genetic information
  • DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) and RiboNucleic Acid (RNA)
  • Consists of nucleotides (monomers)
  • Can be found in fish, fruits, beans
  • Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus
  • Obesity can be a result of genetic factors
  • Nucleic acid is responsible for our genetic information


  • Carbs provide an energy source for the cell
  • Acts as a monomer
  • Comes from fruits, vegetables, bread, cereal, pasta
  • Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
  • Refined carbohydrates add extra pounds through their high glycemic index

  • This means that they cause a quick surge in blood sugar. The sugar is then stored in muscle and if it is not used it turns into fat.

  • But, carbohydrates such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables don't have high glycemic indexes.


  • This biomolecule holds large amounts of energy
  • Lipids are a major component of the cell membrane
  • Cholesterol and other sterols are also types of lipids
  • Can be found in fried foods, butter, whole milk, cheese
  • Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
  • Fats, oils, waxes, and sterols are known as lipids
  • These are one of the biggest contributors to obesity
  • Like carbohydrates, Lipids store energy, and the excess energy, or over consumption can lead to weight gain

Model on How Protein, Carbs, and Fat is converted into Fuel (energy), and Fat

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Energy Conversions

  • Energy conversion is the process of transforming energy from one form into another
  • Metabolism converts calories into energy
  • Converts food into energy

43.5% of Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders are obese


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