George Herbert Walker Bush

Emma Adams, Maddy Ricketts, Jordyn McMillon, Connor Russell

EVENT SUMMARY: Tiananmen Square Protests: April 15th- June 4th, 1989

Beijing's students gathered in the square mourning the death of Hu Yaobang, former secretary general of the Chinese communist party, who was sympathetic towards the Pro-democracy student movement of 1986. Students demanded immediate democratization and direct dialogues with senior leaders. The movement involved mass sit-ins, boycotts of classes, public forums, bicycle demonstrations, and hunger strikes. On May 4th, 1989, pro-democracy demonstrates occured in 51 Chinese cities. In Mid- May, the protests recieved global media coverage, irritating the PRC (People's Republic of China). On May 20th, 1989, after a failed attempt to clear the square, on June 2nd, PRC President Yang Shahgkun ordered a military crack down on the student demonstrates and the clearance of Tiananemen Square. On June 4th, the military fufilled their orders to clear the square, ending the seven- week long protest. Because of press blackout, the estimated deaths and injuries on that night vary from 240 to 10,000.

IMPACT:

The PRC's use of their military do supress the student demonstrations recieved widespread condemtion from many countries. Arms sale to China was suspended, human rights issues were linked to China's entry into the world Trade organization. There's a consensus that the Tiananemen Square Protests had somewhat inspired the liberation of Eastern Europe from Soviet control, marking the end of the cold war.
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EVENT SUMMARY: Panama Invasion- May 1989

Political issues in Panama changed American attitudes about their involvement with Panama. Gen Manuel Noriega consolidated his power in office by authorizing the activity of personal, secret military enforcers. He also allied himself with international drug traffickers. International demands led to a supervised election in 1989, but Noriega refused to recognized it's legitimacy when he was voted out of office. Because of this, the US froze Panamanian assets held in US banks. President George Bush increased the American military presence in Panama. Tensions remained high, increasing with the death of an American soldiers in December. Noriega declared that a state of war existed with the US. a land-air assault, Operation Just Cause, struck Panama City, and Noriega's support soon evaporated.
IMPACT:
US received criticism for the relatively high number of civilian casualties, however most Panamanians approved of the action the US took because it was short, effective and fulfilled both the US and land population needs.
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EVENT SUMMARY: Collapse of the USSR- December 25th, 1991

Soviet Union withdrew from the war, pursuing reform of Russia and better relations with the US. This left other communist governments in Eastern Europe isolated and vulnerable, and they began giving way to democratic revolutions only 2 years later, the various regions that made up the soviet union destroyed the communist system completely.

IMPACT:

US has been faced with only small challenges regarding its domination of world affairs post Cold-War.
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EVENT SUMMARY Gulf War(Desert Sheild/Storm)- 1991-1992

Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait on August 2nd, 1990. George Bush announced that fundamental US interests were involved, and that Saddam Hussein couldn't take control of Kuwait and it's oil. Acting through the United Nations, the US began organizing a multinational coalition to restore Kuwait power. President Bush ordered the beginning of Operation Desert Storm, the transformation from defensive to an offensive operation at 3AM on January 17th, 1991. after Hussein ignored a deadline for withdrawing from Kuwait. Within hours, Hussein's ability to keep his military coordinated was severely hindered. Air crafts roamed over Kuwait and Iraq destroying much of Iraq's armor and personnel, yet Hussein decided to launch an attack on the US lines near Kuwait on January 29th. By Febuary 24th, coalition leaders launched the land campaign. Overwhelming numbers on the ground was too much for the Iraqi army to face, and on Febuary 28th, Hussein asked for a cese- fire. There were more attacks but ultimately the US and allied forces succeeded in their goals.
Desert Shield- The UN force with a strong backing of President George Bush, over a course of six months, amassed a huge military build up in Saaudi Arabia (more than 500,000 American, British, French, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia troops participated).

IMPACT:

The Bush administration, which controlled media coverage of the conflict, has been criticized for exaggerating the effectiveness of patriot missiles; military commanders in the field frequently gave briefings with a positive spin on operations. US military found itself lacking in some areas. Desert storm has been depicted as a huge success with mixed/negative political results.

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EVENT SUMMARY: LA Riots- 1991-1992

Rodney King was severely beaten by the police on March 3, 1991; the four white officers responsible represented for many people of color that was wrong with the police. The riots happened quickly; lots of stores located were set on fire or had other violent acts done to them. Over the course of the next 4 days violence continued to become a bit more organized and eventually had been put to a stop by the National Guard.

IMPACT:

Over 1 billion dollars in damages were done and 53 people were killed. Riots shared the anger and frustration that had been built up in live of recent events (such as Rodney King). it was a way of people speaking out against oppression.

What would the US be like if operation desert storm/shield had failed?