Eisenhower

Jackie Malish 4th Period

Election of Eisenhower

1952

· Republican

· Ran against Adlai E. Stevenson

· Television campaigning

· VP- Richard Nixon

o Delivered Checkers Speech after charges of corrupt financing in order to regain popularity

· Received 442 electoral votes compared to 89

· Republican control of new Congress as well

1956

· Against Adlai Srevenson

· 457 electoral votes to 73

· Congress majority was not Republican

· Health worsening after heart attack and abdominal surgery

· labor legislation big issue

The Cold War


  • Definition: continuous tension between Western democratic countries and communist nations; U.S. wanted to stop Communist expansion

  • Events:
1. Fighting in North Korea/South Korea

2. America finance French fighting in Vietnamese war

  • French trapped at Dienbienphu until surrender
  • "Policy of Boldness" carried out by U.S. and created by John Foster Dulles
3. Creation of Warsaw Pact by Soviets

Joseph McCarthy

  • Anti Communist
  • McCarthy accused Secretary of State Acheson of hiring 205 communists in 1950 speech
  • Bold rhetoric
  • Affected free speech
  • Privately disliked by Eisenhower
  • Many thought he went too far after attacking U.S. army

Desegregation

  • Jim Crow laws were still in affect
  • Progress-- Jackie Robinson, black signed by Brooklyn Dodgers
  • Little Rock Crisis: Orval Faubus used National Guard to prevent 9 blacks from enrolling in Central High School, Eisenhower sent troops to monitor the families and ensure their safety
  • Brown v. Board of Education: overturned Plessy v. Ferguson, public school segregation was unequal and unconstitutional
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott: spurred after Rosa Parks refused to giver up her seat on a public bus, boycott lasted a year
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957: Civil Rights Commission established, monitor violations of civil rights, protect voting

Republicanism policies

  • Balance federal budget
  • avoid socialism
  • Stopped building military
  • Overall small government ideology
  • Allowed states to monitor off shore oil fields
  • encouraged private industry to combat large industry produced by New Deal
  • "Operation Wetback" to collect illegal immigrants
  • Assimilation of native Americans
  • Interstate Highway Act of 1956: $27 billion to build 42,000 miles of highway, increased number of suburbs, benefited trucks and cars but hurt trains and caused energy and pollution concerns
  • Merger of AFL and CIO

Beginning of Vietnam War

  • Ho Chi Minh communist leanings
  • America aiding French fighting
  • Trapped at Dienbienphu
  • Geneva meeting split Vietnam at 17th parallel
  • Guerillas continued campaign against Diem

Space Race

  • First orbiting object, Sputnik put into space by Soviets in 1957
  • Then Sputnik II carrying more weight and a dog
  • Fear of International ballistic missiles
  • Rocket fever led to the creation of NASA
  • America began testing its own missiles and orbits
  • National Defense and Education Act to increase science education