The Neo-Babylonians

(612-539 BCE)

Time period

  • The Neo(new)-Babylonians (612-539 BCE)
  • The Neo-Babylonians Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626BC(they got their independence from the Assyrian Empire) and ended in 539BC( that's when the Battle of Opis took place.). The Neo-Babylonian period ended with the reign of Nabonidus in 539BC. In the east, the Persians have been growing in strength, and eventually Cyrus the great took over Babylon.
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Geographic Location

  • The Neo-Babylonians were settled in the land of Mesopotamia which is between Tigris and Euphrates. It is near the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. The Neo-Babylonian period was a renaissance for Mesopotamia. Large tracts of land were opened to cultivation. Peace and imperial power made resources available to expand the irrigation systems and to build an extensive canal system.
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Advanced Cities & Social Structure

Advanced Cities

  • Babylon was one of the most famous cities. It was the capital of Southern Mesopotamia (Babylonia) from the early 2nd millennium to the early 1st millennium BC. The city of Akkad was the centre of the world's first empire, the Akkadian Empire. The Akkadian language took the place of the Sumerian city-states and continued to be the primary language of the region into the Babylonian and Assyrian Empire.

Social Structure

  • The Neo-Babylonian period was a renaissance for Mesopotamia...The Babylonian countryside was dominated by large estates, which were given to government officials as a form of pay. Rural folk were bound to these estates, providing both labour and rent to their landowners.
  • Urban life flourished under the Neo-Babylonians. Cities received special privileges from the king, had their own law courts and cases were often held in assemblies. Temples dominated urban social structure just as they did the legal system, and a persons social status and political rights were determined by where they stood in the religious hierarchy. Free laborers like craftsmen enjoyed high status. This period witnessed a general improvement in economic life, agricultural production, and a SIGNIFICANT increase in architectural projects, the arts and the science.
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Government & System of Writing


  • The Babylonians had a centralized government that fell into the rule f a king, which they believed was their god.The government was set up to help the King maximize their power. They also set up an in voluntary military service and in taxation (The babylonians was the first to use taxation and it is still used today.
  • The government got there by the Semitic Amorities that took over the area of Mesopotamia near the Tigris and Euphrates river.
  • The Babylonians' powerful army has shaped armies today, their army was large and powerful - just like the armies today are.

System of Writing

  • The Babylonians' system of writing is called cuneiform. The writing was invented by the Sumarians. The writing was first pictures/ pictographs, it became more abstract as it evolved eventually becoming one of the first developed language.
  • Behistun Inscription - Equivalent to the Rosetta Stone but for the Cuneiform.

Behistun Inscription

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  • In Neo-Babylon, the people were very polytheistic. They believed in thousands of gods but only twenty were worshipped more than the other nine hundred and eighty. Anu, Enlil, and Ea were the patron deities and each had some of the universe to share. Anu was the god of the heavens and patron god for Uruk. Enlil was the god of the Earth; Ea was the lord of water and god of craftsmen. Astral deities included Shanash the sun god, Sin the moon-god, and Ishtar the morning and evening star goddess. Adad was the god of storms, and Ninurta was the god of war and hunting. The Neo-Babylonian Empire had gods like Rome, there were tons of them and were all important to them as well.


  • The Babylonian technology has greatly contributed and gave influence to more recent generations. The technology that the Babylonians invented were spears, shields, chariots with horses, knifes and eating utensils, axes, and ropes. The most important thing they made was the pottery wheel, it made most of their vases for holding food or storage. The technology that they had back then have influenced us greatly and some of the things we still use today.


The Significant Neo-Babylonian Empire comes to an end.

Babylon remained a major and magnificent city until Alexander the Great destroyed the Achaemenid Empire in 332BC. After his death, Babylon passed to the Seleucid Empire and a new capital names Seleucia was built on the Tigris. The city of Babylon


  • "Behistun Inscription." - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.
  • "Babylonians." World Book. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.
  • "Babylonian Artifacts." World Book. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.
  • "Babylonian Gvernment." World Book. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.
  • Babylon. Web. 21 Sept. 2014.
  • Cyrus the Great. Digital image. Web. 21 Sept. 2014.