PEACE AND WAR

kEY PRINCIPLES OF A 'JUST WAR'

President Carter's Principles

These First Seven key principles of a "Just War" are from an article written by the former president of the United States James Carter. The moral principles listed were in his eyes the principles that make a war 'just' if that is even possible


Principle One

A just war can only be waged as a last resort. All non-violent options must be exhausted before the use of force can be justified.


Principle Two

A war is just only if it is waged by a legitimate authority. Even just causes cannot be served by actions taken by individuals or groups who do not constitute an authority sanctioned by whatever the society and outsiders to the society deem legitimate.


Principle Three

A just war can only be fought to redress a wrong suffered. For example, self-defense against an armed attack is always considered to be a just cause (although the justice of the cause is not sufficient--see point #4). Further, a just war can only be fought with "right" intentions: the only permissible objective of a just war is to redress the injury.


Principle Four

A war can only be just if it is fought with a reasonable chance of success. Deaths and injury incurred in a hopeless cause are not morally justifiable.


Principle Five

The ultimate goal of a just war is to re-establish peace. More specifically, the peace established after the war must be preferable to the peace that would have prevailed if the war had not been fought.


Principle Six

The violence used in the war must be proportional to the injury suffered. States are prohibited from using force not necessary to attain the limited objective of addressing the injury suffered.


Principle Seven

The weapons used in war must discriminate between combatants and non-combatants. Civilians are never permissible targets of war, and every effort must be taken to avoid killing civilians. The deaths of civilians are justified only if they are unavoidable victims of a deliberate attack on a military target.


The Just War Theory

These principles were formed and also represent what makes a 'just war'. They are very similar and simpler to President Carter's principles.


Principle One

A country has a right to defend itself from attack


Principle Two

It is being fought by the authority of the United Nations


Principle Three

It is being fought with the intention restoring peace

Principle Four

The war is being fought as a last resort


Principle Five

There has to be a reasonable chance of success for both sides


Principle Six

The methods used avoid Killing civilians


Principle Seven

The force used must be proportional to the cause


The Just War Theory

The Just War Theory

By Nicholas Van Berkel - 11 Purple