What is federalism?
Constitutional basis -- Powers
Implied: Not expressed, but implied to be powers to the national government
Inherent: exist for national government because the government is sovereign
Concurrent: Belong to both national and state governments
Reserved: Belong specifically to the states (because they weren't delegated to national government nor denied to states)
Key court cases
Gibbons v. Ogden: the Supreme Court held power to regulate interstate commerce (established commerce clause)
Different Types of Federalism
Cooperative (marble cake) vs. Dual (layer cake) Federalism
Dual: National and state governments separately remaining supreme within their own sphere of influence, seen as separate from each other.
Types of Grants: money provided by federal govt. to state and local govt. to be used for...
- Grants-in-aid: specific projects or programs
- Categorical grants: specific purpose defined by law
- Block grants: a variety of purposes
- Revenue sharing: virtually anything
- Mandates: requirements imposed by the national government on the states. (Unfunded Mandates-- states have to follow mandate at their own expenses, federal govt. doesn't give money to them)