Will Canada be the greatest country to live in 2035?
By Joanne Tuan
Unit 1: Changing Populations
Canada's current population is stable, and high but balanced at an astounding 35.16 million in 2013. We are currently at stage 4 level on the Demographic Transition Model. Also shown on the model, is our low birth rate and stable but low death rate. With our birth rate at 1.68 children per female, most of Canada's population growth is due to immigration. Canada's natural increase rate is declining rapidly.
Canada's Immigration Trends
When immigrating to Canada, everyone needs 67 points in order to earn Canadian status. But these day they now start to mark the point harder than they did in back when they first started. There are 3 types of immigrants who come to Canada, economic, family and refugees. On average 250,000 people who are mostly from Asia. That is why today most of our immigrants come from China, India and the Philippines. They settle here in Ontario because it is in the middle of Canada. It is a magnet to manufacturing. finance, tourism and other industries.
The FNMI is split into 3 categories: First Nations, Metis and Inuit. In 2011 4.3% Aboriginals represents the total population. Between the time periods of 2006-2011, the Aboriginal population increased by 20.1% compared to 5.2% of the non-aboriginal population. The provinces that has the largest numbers of Aboriginal People live in Ontario and western provinces. There are 32% of Metis people located in Canada while Inuit has 4% and First Nations with 61%.
1) First Nations:
- 60.8% of First Nation people represent the total Aboriginal population and 2.6% of total Canadian population
- 1.9% of Canada's population are registered Indians using 2011 statistics
- 301.4% of the First Nations are located in Ontario
- 451,795 people are identified as Metis people
- They represent 32.3% of the total aboriginal population and 1.4% of the total Canadian population.
- 8.0% of the Metis population is located in the Northwest Territories
- 6.7% are located in Manitoba
- 5.2% are located in Saskatchewan
- Winnipeg has the highest population of Metis
- Based on 2011 stats. 59,445 are identified as Inuit.
- 4.2% of the total aboriginal population & 0.2% of the total Canadian population
- Almost 3 quarters of the Inuit population lives in Labrador to the Northwest Territories
- They had the largest population growth with and increase of 22.9%.
I think the Canada's population will change transition into stage 5 in 2035 rather than our regular stage 4 today on the Demographic Transition Model. The population will double in size and population. People who are now classified in the dependency load, the government now has to pay them money for their necessities and probably making the cost of living higher since almost half of 2014 population is now elderly. Baby boomers in 1946-1965 will reach retirement age over the next 2 decades. Canada death rate could possibly increase because of how many elderly people we will have in 2035.
Who will be immigrating to Canada?
In my opinion more people from different ethnic regions from different places around the world. I believe that in 20 years Canada will be one of the top places to immigrating to. Since we'll have a lot of people will be retired there will be more open jobs for people to come. Also, I think that in the future there might be more births because more people who immigrate here today bring in kids or have kids here and we have a good health care system. Canada's immigration shape Canadian society will change because of education purposes.
What changing will have taken place in out FNMI population?
In 2035, the FNMI population could possibly increase because of the beliefs that first nation woman to decide not to have big families. There will be more elderly which means the the birth rate is high now but can be lower death rate without the Indian Act. More will be located in Ontario because the it is the center of Canada.
Unit 2: Interactions in the Physical Environment
Canada's Current Climate
Here are some precipitation amounts of the different regions:
- Coastal British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec: 25 mm
- British Columbia interior, Yukon forecast region: 10mm
- Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Northwest Territories, Nunavut: 5mm
- New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador: 2mm
Canada's climate factors
Canada has 6 different climate factors, Latitude, Ocean Currents, Wind and Air Masses, Elevation, relief and Nearness to water or simply L.O.W.E.R.N. Instead of doing all of Canada's provinces one by one, I will be explaining to you the the climate factors for Ontario and British Columbia.
In Ontario, our climate factors would be latitude, ocean currents and nearest to water. The latitude is a factor because it has a distance away from the equator which means that the farther from the equator it is colder. One of the reasons why our winters are so cold. Ocean currents and nearest to water can also be a factor because Mississauga is close to a few lakes which sates why we have such a mild climate. Also Mississauga is getting ocean currents from New found land and Labrador and the golf stream which is fog and a cool climate.
- British Columbia
In British Columbia our climate factors are latitude, ocean currents, relief and nearest to water. The latitude in B.C. is 54.0000° N, 125.0000° W which is far away from the equator at 0° which means that the farther away it is from the equator, the more it is colder. Ocean currents and nearness to water apply to B.C. because it is beside the Pacific Ocean. Next is relief which is when the air rises at the slope of the mountain and in B.C. there are plenty of mountains like the Interior Plateau, Columbia Mountains and Southern Rockies, Northern and Central Plateaus and mountains and the Great Plains. Higher elevations in the Coast Mountains get heavy snowfall in the winter.
Here in Canada our landform regions include, the Canadian Shield, western Cordillera, Appalachians, Interior Plains, Hudson Bay-Arctic Lowlands and the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Lowlands. Each process similar geological structure. I will explain 2 of the landforms which are the Canadian Shield and the St. Lawrence Lowlands. In the Canadian Shield, it takes place in many locations across Canada like Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Nunavut, Ontario, Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador. Their climate factors include, latitude, ocean currents, wind and air masses and near water. Then for the St. Lawrence Lowlands, the main locations are Southern Ontario and Quebec. Along with their climate factors which include near water, latitude, wind and air masses, and elevation.
Our biggest vegetation zone in Canada is Boreal & Taiga Forest.
Factors Influencing Landscape
In the St. Lawrence Lowlands,our landform was influenced by glaciation. Continental Glaciers carried huge amounts of materials from the Canadian Shield and dumped throughout the region. The Great Lakes are located in basins that were drilled out by glaciers. Then the lakes shrunk to present size, when the glaciers melt, water had drained into the ocean. Some examples of glacial features include eskers, moraines, kettle lakes and drumlins
Climate change influence our climate by the temperature. This also influences soil consumption and the soil profile. This will highly affect soil conditions because of less moisture which equals to less agricultural goods. Climate change effects our country by global warming, our green house gas emissions, heatwaves, disease, glaciers melting, sea level rising, too much Co2 in the water and air. All of these decreasing population because people are dying.
Unit 3: Managing Canada's Resources & Industries
Canada's Current Resources
1) Natural resources:
- iron ore
- copper ore
2) Renewable resources:
- fish stocks are being harvest faster than they can produce
- wind energy
3) Non-renewable resources:
In Alberta, they produce the oil sands. You get forestry from British Columbia. Potash comes mainly from Saskatchewan. In Ontario, mining is one of the resource. Hydropower is produced in Quebec and Newfoundland 's resouce is off source energy.
Sustainable use of resources
Currently we are running out of fish due to over fishing. The fish is being harvested faster than they can reproduce. Our use of energy is sky rocketing especially for Canada's industrial work. We use 37% of energy. Although, oil is a renewable resource,we still need to use it efficiently because it will take million years to be replenish. Even if we do have the XL pipeline and the oil sands, we need to be careful because oil is also energy and its in cars or transportation that gets you to work or schools everyday. We need to start using the Sustainable Yield Management which is knowing how much of a resource can be harvested without running out of the source. Also using the Sustainable Resource Development. Using this process we ensure of there is enough resources for future generations.
Canada's global connections
United States is our top trade partner at 74.5% and we have North American Free Trade Agreement or N.A.F.T.A. with them and Mexico.Then in second place is China at 4.3%. Canada trades with Brazil the least at 0.6%. Canada is involve in multinational corporations which is good because we have large companies that operate across the entire world as well as new ideas. The World Trade Organization (W.T.O. ) is where Canada’s economic well-being depends on access to global markets for natural resources, products, services, manufactured and agricultural goods, Canada top export is minerals fuels & oil at 25.5%. Then it is vehicles & parts at 13.4%. The least amount of resources we export are wood (wood products), ores, metals, and aluminum at 1.9%. Canada also is part of globalization which is when we exchange goods, services, and culture between multiple nations. Like the 5 steps of globalization: Extraction, production,distribution,consumption, and disposal.
Canada will be connected to the world in 2035. They will still trade with United States, Mexico and China. We probably trade with United States more since it will cost more money to ship resources farther away. Also, when we import and export, there is tariffs with our International partners. Whereas, we have the NAFTA agreement with the United States and Mexico.
What will be our most valuable resources?
The most valuable resources for Canada is oil, and water because they are the 2 most important necessity we need for a healthy way of live. Canada has a lot of room for water exports. In time, those exports might be more valuable than the 170 billion barrels of oil that are trapped in the country's oil sands. One study calculated that the province of Quebec, home to roughly one third of Canada's renewable sources of fresh water, could produce $6.5 billion annual tariff by selling as little as 10 per cent of its one trillion cubic meters of fresh water every year.
How can we use our resources sustainably?
When we talk about how we will use our resources sustainably in 2035, I believe that we should still consider using sustainable yield management. Many people take advantage of renewable resources because they think since the are renewable they won't run out. But they can. We should always look ahead of time before we take resources out so they have time to reproduce. Like oil for example, even though it is an renewable resource, it will take millions of years for it to replenish. When we focus on non renewable resources, we should be even more careful and concerened when we are running low on resources. Overall we could be in a ton of trouble if we even lose just one of the resources. We need to stay smart and keep track on our daily consumption.
Unit 4: Liveable Communities
What issues are Canadian cities facing today?
Why is urban sprawl an issue for Canadian cities?
Urban sprawl is an issue for Canadian cites because it causes air pollution. In 2010, there was 7469 deaths in Canada related to air pollution. The four issues of urban sprawl are transportation cost, farm land use, health costs and infrastructure needs. Other issues, it causes are more carbon emissions, stressful for drivers and nature. People who live in sprawling suburbs spend less time walking which may lead to obesity.
How Urban Sprawl would typically look like
Ontario will deal with the issue of urban sprawl by developing The Greenbelt. The Greenbelt is important to agriculture , recreational purposes and the environment.
It is important to agriculture because you could grow your fruits and vegetable in your backyard. There are 5,500 farm in The Greenbelt which created $5.4 billion in the economic and $2.65 billion in GDP. Money and jobs would created and it provided large amount of food to people in the east coast. It was easier and cheaper to transport the food. For recreational purposes, this year The Greenbelt should be ready to use for bicycle touring, which is worth $300 million a year in Ontario and attract many tourists. When we look at urban sprawl in ecology wise, The Greenbelt creates a protection for a natural system bug enough to contain biodiversity, and also helps return endangered species.
How will cities becoming sustainable in the future?
Some cities have already started trying to become more sustainable in the future like in Montreal, Southern Ontario-Toronto and Windsor, and Alberta. In Montreal, many places are producing their own food in their own nation or urban agriculture. It is important for a city like Montreal to produce their own food because we don't have to worry about shipping/storing cost and the foods are always fresh. This can strengthen a community by everyone coming together harvesting foods and work all as one. In Southern Ontario, we are using "brown land" which takes an industrial space to transform land into a new parkspace. Meanwhile in Edmonton, Alberta they have managed to reduce 90% of their waste into something else. Like building houses out of recycled wood taken out of building that have been teared down. Some benefits of this action includes:
- saving money by using what people throw out
- turning methane to energy
- creates jobs
- reduce emissions in atmosphere
After doing this project and learning more about Canada's geography and looking at the current trends of our changing population, interactions in our physical environment, managing Canada's resources & industries and finally liveable communities and making my own predictions. From the information I have gathered I have decided that Canada will be
the greatest country to live in 2035. Overall from my findings Canada will most likely to be more developed as a country.