Mary Ziperman and Sierra Yoshida
Holy Roman Emperors v. Popes
After the Carolingians, local authorities took over, one of which was Otto I, when became the king of Germnay, appointed and gained approval by Pope John, and created the Otto empire in 962. The popes and emperors started conflicting over rule over the states and appointment of church officials. The conflict was called investiture contest, the controversy over the appointment of church officials. Pope Gregory ended the lay investure done mpby emperors like Henry IV, who he excommunicated. Frederick Barbarrosa was also a emperor that wanted to absorb Italy but was stopped by the pope and the states. The popes nor the emperors were strong enough to overthrow each other, and neither of them were an,e to restore centralized imperial rule in Europe.
Otto of Saxony
Elected King by Pope John, and started the Otto empire/ Holy Roman Empire.
"The Red Beard"
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, sought to absorb Lombardy, Italy, but was stopped by popes and European states.
Pope Gregory VII
Protected the Papal States, excommunicated Henry IV.
Regional States of France, England, and Italy
Topic: Explain the development of Regional States in England, France, and Italy.
France and England depended on the relationship between the lord and retainers because of the absence of imperial power. In France, after the Carolingians, the lords elected a noble named High Capet as the king in 987. He wasn't very powerful, but over the years, his ddscendangs the "Capetian Kings" became a prominent political influence. They absorbed lands that retainers with no heirs had, and eventually imposed imperial rule in France. England was founded by the Normans, who were descendants of the Vikings. Dukes built a small centralized state, with a discipline army. By the 11th power, they were a political power in Europe and they imposed a more centralized rule than France. They often had conflict with France because the Normans were trying to invade them. Italy had no single regime, and was run by a series of eccelestical state or city states that fought for power. Popes and bishops usually had the most power. The Byzantine and Muslims were overthrown, and the people were converted to Roman Catholic Christianity, which became the foundation for the kingdom of Naples.
High agricultural yield caused a boost in economy and population, which led to revival in many cities and towns. The agricultural boost was caused by expanison of arable land, improved agricultural techniques, new tools and technologies, and introduction of new crops. In the 10th century, population pressure led serfs to clear land for more agriculture. The use of crop rotation, windmills, heavy plows, and horse shoe/collar, greatly helped the agriculture. The addition of protein rich foods Iike beans, fish, and meats in their diet led to population growth. New crops introduced from Muslims also broadened their diet. The boost in economy/agriculture led to exponential population growth from 1000-1300. Although the plague decreased the population greatly, the population growth led to the revival of many city and towns.
Used moving water as a power source.
Innovation that helped turn moist soil and prepare the land for farming.
Protected horse hooves that stomped over the land used for agriculture to keep it moist.
The estate system consisted of 3 estates which were the broad orders of social hierarchy within Christendom. The first estate was the church or those who pray. This was the spiritual state and included the clergy of Roman Catholic CHurch. The greatest weapon of the church was spiritual. There was also no fighting during holy days or on holy grounds. The second estate was the nobility, or those who fight. This was the military state and included the feudal nobles. The third estate was the peasants or those who work, which consisted of peasants and serfs.
Christianity from Cathedral Schools to thoughts of St. Thomas
In the early middle ages, European society was not wealthy enough to support institutions of advanced education, however, the economic development skyrocketed in the high middle ages providing many more resources for education. In the early 11th century, bishops and archbishops in France and Northern Italy organized schools in their cathedrals and recruited well known scholars to teach there and develop curriculums which transformed school into bigger universities. Later, in the 13th century, Aristotle’s thoughts and literary works spread throughout Europe and influenced many branches of thought. His writings combined Christianity and Greek philosophy to inspire scholastic theologians, the most famous being St. Thomas Aquinas. St Thomas Aquinas thought that Aristotle explained the workings of the world better than any philosopher and viewed Aristotle and CHristian revelation as complimentary authorities. He also thought if they combine the thoughts of Aristotle with the teachings of Christianity, he would create the most truthful and persuasive system of thought possible.
Dominicans and Franciscans
Dominican order is a catholic religious order created by Saint Dominic. The Dominican heritage intertwines a dynamic interrelatedness of four active ideals. Study, Prayer (contemplation, reflection), Community, and Service. These ideals developed as the Order developed under Saint Dominic and his successors. Dominic differed from founders of other religious orders of his time in that he sent his followers to engage in the life of the emerging universities of the thirteenth century. While they studied, they realized that there must be a spirit of prayer, contemplation, and reflection that would connect the world of ideas, the life of the mind, and the spirit of truth, to the reality of the goodness of the Creator. This reflection and prayer could not be done in a vacuum, but must be done in and through the sharing of communal life. Coming full circle, the Dominicans were commissioned to share their knowledge and love of God with the people of the world. Thus, the Order of Preachers continues to share the Good News of the Gospel through the service and ministry they perform. Franciscan, any member of a Christian religious order founded in the early 13th century by Stg, and penance. This First Order is divided into three independent branches: the Friars Minor(O.F.M.), the Friars Minor Conventual (O.F.M. Conv.), and the Friars Minor Capuchin (O.F.M. Cap.). The Second Order consists of cloistered nuns who belong to the Order of St. Clare (O.S.C.) and are known as Poor Clares (P.C.). The Third Order consists of religious and lay men and women who try to emulate Saint Francis’ spirit by performing works of teaching, charity, and social service.
European expansion from Vikings, reconquista, and the Crusades
In the Baltic region the Europeans conquered Prussia, Livonia, Lithuania, and Finland and introduced them to Christianity. Between the 8th and 10th centuries the Muslims conquered the Mediterraneans islands and most of the Iberian peninsula. However, as Europe became stronger they reconquered the territories and converted them to Christianity. In the 9th century the Muslims took over Sicily, but in the 11gh century, Norman warriors returned Sicily to Christian beliefs. Robert Guiscard brother undertook the reconquest of Sicily which did not take as much time as the reconquest of Spain. The reconquista was driven not only by political and economic aspects, but also religious concerns. The Crusades were holy wars that referred to the massive expeditions that Roman Catholic Christians went on to recapture Palestine and the holy city of Jerusalem from Muslim authorities. Pope Urban II launched the Crusades in 1095. Peter the Hermit, a preacher, within a year he put together an army of poor knights and enthusiastic peasants who lacked training which caused the campaign to be a disaster. However, soon after the French and Norman nobles organized a stronger military expedition to the Holy Land. In 1096 the crusading armies traveled to Palestine. By 1099 they captured Edessa, Antioch, and Jerusalem. In the mid 13th century, there were 5 major Crusades, but none succeeded in reestablishing a Christian presence in Palestine.