SPEED

Skill related fitness components

What is speed?

Speed is the rate in motion, so in physical activity and sport it refers to how fast you ca move you body or a body part from one point to another

What are the factors that effect speed?

  • The efficiency of the anaerobic system to provide ATP quickly - If body can provide ATP quicker = being able to run/move faster
  • Muscle activation - associated with recruitment of motor units, leads to faster contraction time and an improvement in speed
  • Rate of force production
  • Muscle and connective tissue joint stiffness or elasticity
  • Duration of activity
  • Resistance to fatigue

Sports that require an athlete to have a high competency in SPEED

Sprint events;
  • Sprint swimmers - 50m
  • Track and field sprints - 100m
  • Basketball
  • Football
  • Cycling
  • Soccor

Sprint tests

35m and 50m sprint tests

Procedures

  • These tests involve running a single maximum sprint over a set distance, with time recorded.
  • After warm up, the test is conducted over a certain distance, such as 10, 20, 35, 40 or 50meters depending on the sport and what you are trying to measure.
  • Specificity can be applied to speed tests by using appropriate distances
50m Sprint Series Indoor Utrecht 17-01-2014, Stadion Galgenwaard

35m Sprint test norms

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50m Sprint test norms

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How to train speed

Training methods for Speed:

  • Medium interval training
  • Short interval training
  • Resistance training
  • Speed training
  • Plyometrics training
  • Circuit training


Medium interval training:

  • Work period is dominated by the anaerobic glycolysis energy system
  • Work period is between 10-60seconds and work rest ratio is 1:2 or 1:3
  • Aim is to develop a tolerance to the build up of lactic acid
  • Allowing athlete to to perform and maintain a high intensity in the presence of metabolic by-product.


Short interval training:

  • Work period is dominated by the ATP-PC energy system
  • Under 10 seconds with a work rest ratio 1:6, working at 95-100%Max HR
  • Improves speed where increase PC stores is a desired adaptation
  • Thus enabling the athlete to work at their highest intensity for longer

Example:

  • 4x50m
  • 6x20m
  • 8x10m
  • 6x20m
  • 4x50m