Unit 2 Vocab

Alanna Murdock - Period 6

1. American Industrial Revolution

American industry expanded and millions of people left their farms to work in mines and factories.

2. Laissez Faire

The government didn't regulate business allowing for monopolies.

3. Trust

A group of corporations run by one board of directors. This was a loophole for the wealthy to still run monopolies.

4. Robber Baron

A businessman who uses ruthless tactics such as stealing from the public and abusing the law.

5. Vertical Integration

When a company owns all of the pieces needed for the business production and delivery.

6. Horizontal Integration

When a company buys out the competition to gain market share.

7. Political Machine

Informal political groups designed to keep power. They provided essential services for immigrants in exchange for votes.

8. Ellis Island

The east coast processing center for immigrants entering America.

9. Tenements

Dark and crowded, multi-family apartments in the cities where many working class people lived.

10. Ethnic Enclaves

Immigrants often tried to live in areas with others from the same country and tried to recreate comforts from home.

11. Nativism

A preference for native born people and a desire to limit immigration.

12. Gilded Age

During this time period there were many nice looking things on the outside (like new skyscrapers) but as you got closer you saw the ugly underneath.

13. Social Darwinism

Social theory that attempts to adapt Darwin's thinking - it was used to explain poverty and justify class distinctions and the imbalance of power.

14. Americanization

A process of assimilating the immigrants into the dominant culture.

15. Populist Party

A political party led by farmers to increase political power.

16. Gospel of Wealth

Andrew Carnegie's essay and outlook that the wealthy should give back to society. He donated $350 million.

17. Social Gospel Movement

Religious reformers strove to improvement city social conditions according to biblical ideas of charity and justice. Dwight Moody created the YMCA during this time.

18. Progressivism

A philosophy that progress is important and advancements are good for society.

19. Muckraker

Journalists who brought attention to the negative things going on in society.

20. John D Rockefeller

Rockefeller was one of the robber barons whose monopoly was oil. He controlled 90% of the American oil refineries.

21. Andrew Carnegie

Carnegie's monopoly was steel although he started in the railroads. He eventually sold his steel company and devoted himself to philanthropy.

22. JP Morgan

Morgan was one of the most powerful bankers who financed railroads and helped organize US Steel, General Electric and other major corporations.

23. Cornelius Vanderbilt

A robber baron whose fortune was made in shipping and railroads.

24. Thomas Edison

Inventor of the first safe light bulb , phonograph and kinetoscope. His company turned into modern day General Electric.

25. Henry Ford

Created the Model T car and he perfected the assembly line.

26. Samuel Gompers

Was the first president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). He helped unions become accepted.

27. William “Boss” Tweed

Was a leader of the Tammany Hall, which was a political machine in New York.

28. Upton Sinclair

A popular muckraker who wrote The Jungle which is about the problems that existed in the meat packing industry.

29. Jacob Riis

A muckraker who wrote about harsh city living conditions.

30. Theodore Roosevelt

26th President who served from 1901 to 1909. He fought against large trusts.

31. William Taft

27th president who served from 1909 to 1913. He initially was a trust buster but later backed away. He was often thought of as an ineffective president.

32. Meat Inspection Act

An act that helps ensure that meat and meat products are safe. Upton Sinclair's book, The Jungle, helped bring this problem to light.

33. Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

The Populist Party helped organize the ICC which regulated railroad rates.

34. Children’s Bureau 1912

Created by President Taft to help regulate child labor laws.

35. Sherman Anti-Trust Act

Passed by Congress in 1890, this act prohibited the growth of monopolies.

36. 16th Amendment

Citizens started being taxed off of income instead of their land. This was especially important for farmers and low income families.

37. 17th Amendment

U.S. Senators would now be elected instead of appointed.

38. 18th Amendment

Prohibited production, sale and transport of alcohol. This was appealed in 1933 by the 21st Amendment.

39. 19th Amendment

Guaranteed American women the right to vote.