The Protestant Reformation
A History Changing Event...
Desiderius Erasmus: He was a Christian humanist who wanted to reform the Church without breaking from it. His ideas paved the way for the Reformation.
Martin Luther: A monk and professor, he began the Protestant Reformation in the early 1500s. Believing in a new doctrine of salvation, he broke from the Catholic Church and established Lutheranism.
Henry VIII: Henry reigned as the King of England (1491-1547) and led the break between the Catholic Church of England and the pope in Rome.
Charles V: The Holy Roman emperor, who ruled an immense empire consisting of Spain and its colonies (Austrian lands, Bohemia, Hungary, the Low Countries, the duchy of Milan, kingdom of Naples). In anger, he excommunicated Martin Luther.
Frederick Elector of Saxony: He was one of Martin Luther's students who attended Wittenberg University. He protected Luther and sent him into hiding so he would not get killed.
1517: The Protestant Reformation began.
October 31, 1517: The day Martin Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg.
1519: Charles V was elected Holy Roman Emperor.
January 1521: Luther was excommunicated by the Church at the imperial diet (legislative assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire. He was made an outlaw by the Edict of Worms.
1534: Henry VIII initiates the creation of the Church of England.
1555: Religious warfare in Germany ended with the Peace of Augsburg.
Holy Roman Catholic Church: the only Church of the empire before the Reformation (as there was no separation of Church and state, the Church was the center of everything)
Reform: a change in something in order to improve it
Indulgences: a paper sold to people who wish to save their souls, said to provide them release from all or part of their punishment for sins
Ninety-five Theses: Luther's theses that stunningly attacked the selling of indulgences, which he posted on the door of the Catholic Church so the everyone would see his ideas
Edict of Worms: issued by the Catholic Church and Charles V to condemn Martin Luther as a heretic and enemy of the state
Peace of Augsburg: agreement that formally accepted the division of Christianity in Germany, allowing German states the freedom to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism