Menstrual Cycle

By: Makenna Shumate

Menstrual Cycle

  • The process of ovulation and menstruation in women


Signs/Symptoms:


  • depression
  • abdominal cramping
  • bloating
  • food cravings
  • etc.
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4 Stages of the Menstrual Cycle

Stage 1 ( Follicle stage)

  • The stage in which follicles in the ovary mature. FSH is secreted from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

Stage 2 ( Ovulation Stage)

  • When the concentration of estrogen in the female bloodstream reaches a high level, it causes the pituitary gland to stop FSH secretion. As this occurs, the luteinizing hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland. Around day 14 of the menstrual cycle, estrogen, LH, and FSH combine together to and cause follicles to rupture allowing an egg cell to be released.

Stage 3 ( Corpus Luteum Stage/ Luteal Phase)

  • After ovulation, LH stimulates the cells of the ruptured follicle to divide quickly. This mass of yellowish/reddish cells are called corpus luteum. Now progesterone is being produced. Progesterone helps to maintain the continued growth and thickening of the endometrium in case and embryo in implanted here. Progesterone also prevents the formation of new ovarian follicles by inhibiting the release of FSH. This stage lasts about 14 days

Stage 4 (Menstruation Stage)

  • If fertilization does not occur and an embryo is not implanted in the uterus, the progesterone reaches a level in the bloodstream that inhibits further LH secretion. With decreased LH secretion, the corpus luteum breaks down causing a decrease in progesterone secretion as well. As the Progesterone level decreases, the lining of the endometrium becomes progressively thinner and eventually breaks down. The extra layers of the endometrium and the unfertilized egg peel away causing blood from ruptured capillaries, going from the uterus to the vagina. This is the menstrual blood flow and starts around day 28. Depending on the person this cycle may last 4 to 8 days.

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Amenorrhea

  • an abnormal absence of menstruation.


Causes:


  • Pregnancy
  • Breast-feeding
  • Menopause
  • Medication
  • etc.


Signs/Symptoms

  • Breast size changes.
  • Weight gain or weight loss.
  • Discharge from the breast or change in breast size.
  • Acne and increased hair growth in a male pattern.
  • Vaginal dryness.
  • Voice changes
  • no menstrual bleeding

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Dysmenorrhea

  • painful menstruation, typically involving abdominal cramps.


Causes


  • hormones
  • lack of exercise
  • Smoking
  • Drinking
  • Etc.



Signs/Symptoms


  • lower abdominal pain

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

  • A group of symptoms that occur in women, typically between ovulation and a period


Causes

  • Hormones
  • Contracting muscles


Signs/Symptoms

  • Mood Swings
  • Tender breasts
  • Food cravings
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Depression

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Menopause

  • A natural decline in reproductive hormones when a woman reaches her 40s or 50s


Causes

  • The body doesn't produce as many reproductive hormones


Signs/Symptoms

  • Hot flashes
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Etc.

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