Chemistry of life

Elyzah Marye Reyes

Water and it's characteristics.

Adhesion and cohesion are water properties that affect every water molecule on earth and also the interaction of water molecules with molecules of other substances. Cohesion makes water drops a drop.Adhesion is the tendency of dissimilar particles or surfaces to cling to one another (cohesion refers to the tendency of similar or identical particles/surfaces to cling to one another). Polarity alows other substances to disolve in water.(polar/non-polar molecules).Polar molecules are molecules that dissolve well in water.Non-polar molecules do not dissolve well in water.Storage of heat controls temp lets cells maintain a constant internal temp when external temp changes drastically.PH scale measures the concentration of hydrogen ionsbetween 0-14. 0-6more acid containing things like lemons & vinegar.7 being evened out which is milk.8-14 being more basic contains hand soap,household anmonia.
Water - Liquid Awesome: Crash Course Biology #2

Macromolecules

There are four classes of macromolecules. They are Carbohydrates,lipids,proteins,and nucleic acids.They are all composed of lomg complexed chains of molecules (polymers)but have different structures and functions(monomoers).They are joined together in a process called dehydration synthesis.by releasing water nitrogen and oxygen.3 types of nucleic acids are : DNA,ATP,RNA they are resposible for lifes many purposes.
Macromolecules: Lipids, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acid, Excerpt 1 | MIT 7.01SC Fundamentals of Biology

Carbohydrates

They are energy-providing nutrients. Carbohydrates contain carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Carbohydrate monomers are called monosaccharides e.g. glucose and fructose. Two monomers are joined by a glycosidic bond to form a disaccharide e.g. sucrose. Carbohydrate polymers e.g. starch, glycogen and cellulose are formed from many monomers joined by glycosidic bonds. The bonds between the monomers in disaccharides and polysaccharides can be broken by hydrolysis . Carbohydrates are important sources and stores of chemical energy. There are chemical tests to indicate if they are in food.
Biology Lecture - 7 - Carbohydrates

Proteins

Six facts about proteins Proteins contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sometimes sulphur. The basic monomers of proteins are amino acids. The amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds formed by condensation reactions. The peptide bonds in proteins can be broken down by hydrolysis. This can be done with dilute acid or a protease enzyme. Proteins structure is described at three levels. The Biuret test can be used to see if proteins are present. Proteins contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sometimes sulphur. The basic monomers of proteins are amino acids. The amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds formed by condensation reactions. The peptide bonds in proteins can be broken down by hydrolysis. This can be done with dilute acid or a protease enzyme. Proteins structure is described at three levels. The Biuret test can be used to see if proteins are present.
Proteins

Lipids

Fats and oils are not polymers like carbohydrates and proteins. Lipids are made up of fatty acids and glycerol . The most common arrangement is found in triglycerides. Fatty acids have an acid group and a side chain group. If the R group has single bonds, the fatty acid is saturated. If it has double bonds, it is unsaturated. Phospholipids are important in cell membranes. The presence of lipids can be checked with the emulsion test
Lipids

Nucleic Acids

DNA, the most well-known nucleic acid, was first discovered in 1869 by a Swiss scientist named Johann Friedrich Miescher. It was not until the late 1940s that scientists realize that nucleic acids made DNA, not proteins as was once thought. Every nucleic acid is a polynucleotide with a linear form. DNA is usually double-stranded, with the exception of viruses, which are single stranded. One of the most interesting facts about nucleic acids is that there is only around a 0.1 percent difference in DNA between each human. In addition to this, chimpanzees bear a 98.5 percent DNA similarity to humans

Enzymes

Are large biological molecules.They are responsible for thousands of processes that sustain life.They are a protein. They are a catalysts that drive a chemical reaction to occur.Without them the reaction would take a vary long time to go to reaction.
Enzymes