Xanax

Connor Halvorson

Brand Name

Xanax

Generic name

alprazolam

Manufacturer

Pfizer

Clinical Effects

Anti anxiety, it slows down the movement of chemicals in the brain to create balance reducing nervous tension.

Uses

Management of anxiety disorders or short-term relief of anxiety symptoms.

Cautions

May be used with treated open-angle glaucoma. Increased risk of dependence with doses >4mg/day, treatment for >12 weeks, and in panic disorder patients. Seizures, including status epilepticus, reported with dose reduction or abrupt discontinuation. Early am anxiety and emergence of anxiety symptoms between doses reported; give same total daily dose divided as more frequent administrations. Withdrawal reactions may occur; reduce dose or d/c therapy gradually. May impair mental/physical abilities. May cause fetal harm; avoid use during 1st trimester. Hypomania/mania reported in patients with depression. Caution with severe depression, suicidal ideation/plans, impaired renal/hepatic/pulmonary function, elderly, and debilitated patients. Has a weak uricosuric effect. Decreased systemic elimination rate with alcoholic liver disease/obesity.

Caution for pregnancy- Category D, not for use in nursing.

Common side effects

Being forgetful, changes in patterns and rhythms of speech, clumsiness or unsteadiness, difficulty with coordination, discouragement, drowsiness, feeling sad or empty, irritability, lack of appetite, lightheadedness, loss of interest or pleasure, relaxed and calm, shakiness and unsteady walk, sleepiness or unusual drowsiness, slurred speech, tiredness, trouble concentrating, trouble in speaking, trouble performing routine tasks, trouble sleeping, unsteadiness, trembling, or other problems with muscle control or coordination, unusual tiredness or weakness

Adverse Effects

depression, confusion, insomnia, constipation, diarrhea, blurred vision

Interactions

Not recommended with azole antifungals. Avoid with very potent CYP3A inhibitors. Caution with alcohol, other CNS depressants, diltiazem, isoniazid, macrolides (eg, erythromycin, clarithromycin), grapefruit juice, sertraline, paroxetine, ergotamine, cyclosporine, amiodarone, nicardipine, nifedipine, and other CYP3A inhibitors. Additive CNS depressant effects with psychotropics, anticonvulsants, antihistaminics, ethanol, and other drugs that produce CNS depression. Increased digoxin concentrations reported (especially in patients >65 yrs of age); monitor for signs/symptoms of digoxin toxicity. May increase plasma concentrations of imipramine and desipramine. Fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, nefazodone, cimetidine, and oral contraceptives may increase concentrations. CYP3A inducers (eg, carbamazepine), propoxyphene, and smoking may decrease levels. May require dose adjustment or discontinuation with HIV protease inhibitors (eg, ritonavir).

Overdose effects

Manifestations of alprazolam overdosage include somnolence, confusion, impaired coordination, diminished reflexes and coma.

Schedule

initial dosage is 0.25-0.5 mg doses may increase in intervals of 3-4 days to a max of 4mg/day in divided doses.

Other brands

Alprazolam, Niravam,

Other drugs for the same perpous

Valium, Ativan, and Klonopin