By Kacey Plunkett

Cell Membrane (Plasma)

The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell. Its function is to protect the cell from its surroundings. They are found in both animals and plants.

Cell Wall

A rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher plants, it consists mainly of cellulose. Its function is to act as a pressure vessel. Found in plants.


The material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus. Its function is by giving a cell its shape. It is found in both animal and plant.


A dense organelle present in most eukaryotic cells, typically a single rounded structure bounded by a double membrane, containing the genetic material. The function is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell, and is found in both plants and animals.

Nuclear Membrane

A nuclear membrane, also known as the nuclear envelope, is the double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells. the function is to be a barrier that separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm. Is found in both animals and plants.


A small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase. The function is rewrite RNA and combine it with proteins. It is in both plant and animals.


A minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division. They to help the cell when it comes time to divide. Is present in both animals and plants.


The material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA, and DNA. It helps pack DNA into a smaller volume to fit in the cell. Its found in plants.


A minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins. Export the polypeptide produced to the cytoplasm where it will form a functional protein. Is in both animals and plants.

Golgi apparatus

A complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport. Present in both. The function is modifying, sorting and packaging of proteins for secretion.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

A network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis. Found in both. It folds of protein molecules in sacs.


An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers (cristae). Makes the form of a chemical called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Is found in both.


A plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place (green plant cells). Plants have it but animals don't. Absorbs sunlight and use it in conjunction with water and carbon dioxide gas to produce food for the plant.


In the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane. Only in animals. Digests excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.


Small organelle that is present in the cytoplasm of many cells; contains the reducing enzyme catalase and usually some oxidases. Breaks down the very long chain of fatty acids through beta-oxidation. Is found in both.


A space; enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid. Isolates materials that might be harmful or a threat to the cell. In both.


A microscopic network of protein filaments, giving them shape and coherence. Helps shape the cells. Is present in both/