Lord of the Flies

By: William Golding


Lord of the Flies is a prime example of allegory. There are many ways this allegory can be interpreted but my favorite is this. Ralph represents us the person. Each of the other characters and symbols represent parts of our humanness. Jack represents the non-rational sense, which is to satisfy our physical needs with no thought of consequence. Piggy represents the intellectualism in human beings. Simon represents the emotional side, with the want to serve others, which rivals a Christ-like figure. This can be said for other characters in the book as well.

Chapter Summary

Chapter 1: The Sound of the Shell

Refers to when Piggy finds the shell and Ralph blows it to call the boys to him.

Chapter 2: Fire on the Mountain

Refers to when they first start a fire atop a mountain to have a chance at rescue.

Chapter 3: Huts on the Beach

Ralph and Simon help to build huts for shelter but everyone else is not contributing.

Chapter 4: Painted Faces and Long Hair

Jack begins to paint him and his hunters' faces. The boys' hair is also growing longer.

Chapter 5: Beast from Water

The boys find out and begin to believe that the beast is hiding in the ocean during the day.

Chapter 6: Beast from the Air

A dead parachutist floats down and is positioned to where the boys mistake him for the beast.

Chapter 7: Shadows and Small Trees

The shadows represent the boys' growing fear and the tall trees are what cause that fear.

Chapter 8: Gift for the Darkness

The gift for the darkness is the Lord of the Flies which is an offering to the so called beast.

Chapter 9: A View to a Death

The boys viewed both the parachutist and Simon wrong. They mistook them for the beast and Simon payed with his life.

Chapter 10: The Shell and the Glasses

The shell represents authority and it becomes weaker and more fragile. The glasses represent reason and they break and are stolen as well.

Chapter 11: Castle Rock

Ralph and Piggy decide to travel to the place of Jack's clan called Castle Rock. Piggy dies in the end.

Chapter 12: Cry of the Hunters

Ralph is hunted but when they are rescued all of the boys including the hunters break down and cry.


  1. Ralph- Original leader and is protagonist. Represents order, civilization, and leadership.
  2. Jack- Main antagonist. Takes over Ralph's role as leadership and is a hunter. Represents thirst for power and savagery.
  3. Simon- Sort of a Christ figure. Represents goodness and saintliness.
  4. Piggy- Ralph's right hand man. Represents rationalism and intelligence.
  5. Maurice- One of the hunters who helps Jack and torments the littluns.
  6. Roger- Very violent and evil character who torments others. Represents sadism, or hurting or killing people for enjoyment.
  7. Littluns- They cause certain problems for the biguns such as bringing forth the thought of the beast. They represent innocence.
  8. Sam and Eric- Switch sides throughout the story to avoid confrontation. Represent civilized people who follow the rules for whoever is in charge at the time.
  9. Henry- Gets stones thrown at him by Roger. He represents unknowing innocence when Roger is throwing stones at him he doesn't cry or know the evil in Roger's heart.
  10. Percival- Cries at night while thinking about the beast. He represents the terror of innocence when confronted by outside or unknown forces.
  11. British Officer- Shows up at the end to rescue the boys off the island. He represents the civilization that the boys have so needed this whole time.


  1. Conch shell- authority
  2. clothing- rules, order, and democracy
  3. hair and face paint- didn't just make people look like something else, but also become something else
  4. Piggy's eyeglasses- reason
  5. Lord of the Flies- represents a Satan figure or beast
  6. Creepers- represent the troubles the boys will face in oncoming challenges
  7. imagery of wounds- represents the boys bringing of destruction on the island
  8. the pig hunts- symbolize man's capacity for destruction and violence
  9. huts- represent the law and order that Ralph hope he can bring on the island
  10. jungle- nature's balance and control without man's interference
  11. the mountain- at the beginning it represents hope for rescue but it then becomes an ominous sign when Jack's group takes it over.
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Biblical Motifs

There is always a struggle for good vs. evil. There is a paradise ruined by human intervention. Satan is sometimes referred to in Hebrew as Ba'al Zebub which translates to Lord of the Flies. Simon is also seen as a Christ-like figure when he acts.


1. Civilization vs. Savagery- Ralph and Jack

2. Experience vs. Innocence- Biguns and the Littluns

3. Wisdom vs. Knowledge- Simon and Piggy

4. Physical (human nature) vs. Spiritual (Simon)- Jack and the other ones overcome Simon

5. Nature of Violence- All people have some violence in them that can be unleashed in situations.

6. Nature of Fear- When people are afraid they will go to others who can protect them.

End of the Story

Ralph cries at the end of the story out of regret and sadness. He felt terrible grieving in the loss of his friend Piggy and in the loss of innocence in knowing the darkness of man's heart.
"Lord of the Flies" SYMBOLS -- 60second Recap®