First Aid and Safety

Kyle Thompson

Poisons

Poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction.

Some dangerous poisons include

-Hemlock

-Cyanide

-Aconite

-Mercury

-Arsenic

Most poisons are in household items though, some include

-Vitamins

-Plants

-Pain Medicine

-Pesticides

-Cleaning Substances

-Laundry Products

-Alcohols

-Batteries

How to treat poisoning : If a harmful substance has splashed onto their skin or clothes, remove any contaminated items and wash the affected area thoroughly with warm or cool water, if they had eaten a poisonous substance try to get them to spit out the substance until medical help arrives.

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Bleeding

  • Bleeding is what your body naturally does after a wound occurs to help prevent infections.

  • Symptoms of severe bleeding
  • -A sudden severe headache.
  • -Seizures
  • -Weakness in an arm or leg.
  • -Nausea or vomiting.
  • -Decreased alertness; lethargy.
  • -Changes in vision.
  • -Tingling or numbness.
  • -Difficulty speaking or understanding speech.
  • How to treat bleeding:
  • Stop Bleeding. Apply direct pressure on the cut or wound with a clean cloth, tissue, or piece of gauze until bleeding stops.
  • Clean Cut or Wound. Gently clean with soap and warm water.
  • Protect the Wound. Apply antibiotic cream to reduce risk of infection and cover with a sterile bandage
  • Call medical help if needed
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Burns

There are 4 degrees of burns



-First degree burns affect only the outer layer of the skin. They cause pain, redness, and swelling.


-Second Degree Burns affect both the outer and underlying layer of skin. They cause pain, redness, swelling, and blistering.


-Third Degree Burns affect the deep layers of skin involving destruction of the skin through the deep layers of the skin, loss of fluid, and sometimes shock.


-Fourth Degree Burn additionally involves injury to deeper tissues, such as muscle, tendons, or bone.


There is 5 main types of burns:


-Electrical Burn is a burn that results from electricity passing through the body causing rapid injury.


-Chemical Burns occur when your skin or eyes come into contact with an irritant, such as an acid or a base


- Fire Burns undergo rapid combustion or consume fuel in such a way as to give off heat, gases, and, usually, light.


-Scalds are an injury with very hot liquid or steam.


-A Radiation Burn is damage to the skin or other biological tissue caused by exposure to radiation.

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Heat and Cold Related Illnesses.

People that work in hot conditions need to take special precautions in order to prevent heat illness which can eventually lead to heat stroke and can be fatal.

Common heat illnesses:

-Heat Rash

-Heat Stroke

-Heat Cramps

-Heat fatigue

-Heat Exhaustion


Common Cold Illnesses:

-Frost nip

-Frost Bite

-Chilblains

-Hypothermia

With cold illnesses it is important to

-Get person out wet clothes

-Rewarm the person

-Have person drink something.

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