Language Arts 8th Grade
What we've Learned This Year! By : Collin Soileau
Chapter 5 The Prase
A Phrase: Is a group of related words that does not contain a verb and it's subject.
A Prepostional Phrase: Includes a preposistion, a noun, or pronoun that modifis the object.
A Adverb Phrase: A phrase that modifies a verb an adjective is an adverb phrase.
A Particple: A verb that can be used as an adjective.
A Particple Phrase: Consist of a partciple and any complements.
A Gerund: Is a verb form ending in -ing.
A Gerund Phrase: Consist of a gerund and any modifers or compliments the gerund has.
A Infintive: A verbform that can be used as a noun, adjective, or an adverb.
Phrase- A message from the other basketball coach.
Prepostional Phrase- The baseball field is down the road.
Adverb- We went to the doctor's, but it was closed.
Partciple- The kid waved at me and i just stared.
Partciple Phrase- Seeing myself as a doctor is weird.
Gerund-When we looked to our right the girl was standing.
Gerund Phrase- Sometimes playing baseball messes with school work.
Infintive- Baseball is a mobile sport, you can play everywhere.
Chapter 6: The Clause
A Subordinate Clause: Does not express a complete thought.
An Adjetive Clause: A clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.
An Adverb Clause: A subordinate clause that modifies a verb or adjective or adverb.
A Noun Clause: A subordinate clause used as a noun.
Clause- We gathered at the feild.
Subordinate Clause- I want to eat that sandwich.
Adjective Clause- I showed the team pictures i took in paris.
Adverb- When winter sets in, I'll regret not getting all the play time outside.
Noun Clause- it was so obvious i liked baseball.
Simple Sentences- The hairstylist gave me a new look.
Compound Sentences- Accourding to the legend the mummys are real.
Complex Sentences- I feel like practicing baseball .
Compound-Complex- I left and locked the door but forgot to turn the lights off.
Chapter 8: Agreement
Antecedent: A pronoun should agree in both number and gender.
Agreement in subject and verb: The verb should agree with its subject.
Problem in agreement is the number of its subject is not changed by a phrase or following clause by it's subject.
Simular subjects joined by Or or Nor take a singular verb.
Plural subjects joined by or or nor take a plural verb
Compound Sentence- I dont like dogs that are mean.
Antecedent- I made a shirt for the team.
Chapter 9: Principal parts, Regular and irregular verbs, Tense, Voice
Verb Tense: The tense of a verb indicates the time or where the action is being stated in the sentence.
Consistency of tense: Do not change needlessly from on etence to another.
Passive Voice: A verb in active voice expresses an action done by its subject.
Active Voice: Expresses an action done to its subject.
Parts Of A Verb, the four principal parts of a verb are the base form, The present participle, the past, and the past participle.
Regular Verbs form its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.
Irregular- Carlos has gone shopping at the mall.
Verb Tense- she decided that if she kicks it hard enough that it will fly to the moon.
Consistency- If my mom gets home in time we can go to the movies.
Passive- I helped mom take in the supplies.
Active- The robber took all my stuff last night.
Chapter 10: Using Pronouns Correctly
The Nominative Case: The subject of a verb should be in the nominative case.
A predicative nominative should be in the nominative case.
The Objective Case: The direct object should be in the objective case.
An object of a preposition should be in the objective case.
Possessive Case: the pronoun is in the possessive case.
Appositives: A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same case as the word to which it refers to.
Case- Many of the employeess were mad about the low pay.
Nominative-Do you know if you sold them tickets..
Direct- I was suprised when i got a baseball for christmast.
Chapter 11: Using Modifers Correctly
Modfier: Is a word group that makes the meaning of another word specific.
Adverb: Adverbs normally end with -ly but not alll do.
Adjectives: They also end with -ly so you usually cant tell if its a adverb or adjective.
Linking Verbs: They are followed by a predicate adjective.
Good: Is an adjective, this is used to modify a noun or a pronoun.
Well: Use well to modify a verb.
Irregular Comparision: The comparision and superlative degree.
Superlative Forms: Use the compartive degree when comparing two or more things.
Else: Use other or else when comparing on member of a group or more.
Double Comparing: Avoid using double comparision.
Double Negatives: Avoid using doble negatives
Preposistional Phrases: Consist of a phrase, a noun, or pronoun.
Particaple Phrases: Consis of a verb form.
Adjective Clauses: Is a subordinate clause that edifies a noun or pronoun.
Modfier-My brother knows how to be awesome.
Adverb- You have a nice pitch.
Adjective- I can run fast.
Linking Verbs- i love a powerful movie.
Good- you did a good job today .
Well- I do well is basketball.
Irregular Comparision- Good, Better, Well, Worse
Superlative Forms- The second pitch was a hommer.
Else- We wern't letting anyone else get in the door.
Preposistional Phrase- The movie was by James Brown.
Participle Phrase- I was yelling for help.
Adjective- The book that we read was about shoes.
Chapter 12: A Glossary of Usage
Glossary: A alphabetical list of special terms or expressions.
A: Use "A" in front of a word with a consonant sound.
An: Use "an" in front of a word with a vowel.
Accept: Accept is a verb that means to receive.
Except: Is a word that means to leave out or to exclude.
Ain't: Means completley perpared.
A Lot : Should always be written in two words
As: See like, as
As If: To see as a thought
At: Do not use after where
Bad: Is an adjective
Badly: Is an adverb
A- I would like a burger
An- He was An enigneer.
Accept- I accept that i wont play till next year.
Exept- Everyone wanted to play except me.