Language Arts 8th Grade

What we've Learned This Year! By : Collin Soileau

Chapter 1 Subjects and Predicates

A subject of a sentence is who or what the sentence is about. The complete subject is all modifiers that refer to the subject.


The kid ran the bases. ( sub. Kid)

The kid ran the bases quickley and scored a homerun.( complete subject - The kid ran the bases quickly.)

Chapter 2 Parts of Speech Overview.

A noun is a person place or thing.

The ball is white. ( noun. Ball)


An Adjective is something that describes the noun.


The ball is white with stripes. ( Adj. white , with stripes.)

Chapter 3 Parts of Speech

A Conjunction is a word that you can put in a sentence to combine 2 sentences and make one sentence.


The man cuts grass and weed eats. ( Conj. And)

Chapter 4 Complements

A complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb.


Adam brought sandwiches. ( Complement . Sandwiches , explaining what Adam brought.

Chapter 5 The Prase

A Phrase: Is a group of related words that does not contain a verb and it's subject.

A Prepostional Phrase: Includes a preposistion, a noun, or pronoun that modifis the object.

A Adverb Phrase: A phrase that modifies a verb an adjective is an adverb phrase.

A Particple: A verb that can be used as an adjective.

A Particple Phrase: Consist of a partciple and any complements.

A Gerund: Is a verb form ending in -ing.

A Gerund Phrase: Consist of a gerund and any modifers or compliments the gerund has.

A Infintive: A verbform that can be used as a noun, adjective, or an adverb.

Examples:

Phrase- A message from the other basketball coach.

Prepostional Phrase- The baseball field is down the road.

Adverb- We went to the doctor's, but it was closed.

Partciple- The kid waved at me and i just stared.

Partciple Phrase- Seeing myself as a doctor is weird.

Gerund-When we looked to our right the girl was standing.

Gerund Phrase- Sometimes playing baseball messes with school work.

Infintive- Baseball is a mobile sport, you can play everywhere.

Chapter 6: The Clause

A Clause: A word group that contains a verb and it's subject.

A Subordinate Clause: Does not express a complete thought.

An Adjetive Clause: A clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.

An Adverb Clause: A subordinate clause that modifies a verb or adjective or adverb.

A Noun Clause: A subordinate clause used as a noun.

Examples:

Clause- We gathered at the feild.

Subordinate Clause- I want to eat that sandwich.

Adjective Clause- I showed the team pictures i took in paris.

Adverb- When winter sets in, I'll regret not getting all the play time outside.

Noun Clause- it was so obvious i liked baseball.

Chapter 7: Sentence Structure

Simple Sentence: Has one independent and no subordinate

Compound Sentence: Has 2 or more independents and no subordinate.

Complex Sentences: One independent and 2 or more subordinate.

Compound-Complex Sentences: Has 2 or more subordinate and one subordinate clause

Examples:

Simple Sentences- The hairstylist gave me a new look.

Compound Sentences- Accourding to the legend the mummys are real.

Complex Sentences- I feel like practicing baseball .

Compound-Complex- I left and locked the door but forgot to turn the lights off.

Chapter 8: Agreement

Compound Subjects: Subjects joined by and usually take a plural verb.

Antecedent: A pronoun should agree in both number and gender.

Agreement in subject and verb: The verb should agree with its subject.


Problem in agreement is the number of its subject is not changed by a phrase or following clause by it's subject.


Simular subjects joined by Or or Nor take a singular verb.


Plural subjects joined by or or nor take a plural verb

Examples:

Compound Sentence- I dont like dogs that are mean.

Antecedent- I made a shirt for the team.

Chapter 9: Principal parts, Regular and irregular verbs, Tense, Voice

Irregular Verbs: It forms a past and past participle in some other way than adding -d or -ed to the base form.

Verb Tense: The tense of a verb indicates the time or where the action is being stated in the sentence.

Consistency of tense: Do not change needlessly from on etence to another.

Passive Voice: A verb in active voice expresses an action done by its subject.

Active Voice: Expresses an action done to its subject.

Parts Of A Verb, the four principal parts of a verb are the base form, The present participle, the past, and the past participle.

Regular Verbs form its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.

Examples:

Irregular- Carlos has gone shopping at the mall.

Verb Tense- she decided that if she kicks it hard enough that it will fly to the moon.

Consistency- If my mom gets home in time we can go to the movies.

Passive- I helped mom take in the supplies.

Active- The robber took all my stuff last night.

Chapter 10: Using Pronouns Correctly

Case: Is a form of a noun or a pronoun that takes the place to show it's relationship to other words in a sentence.

The Nominative Case: The subject of a verb should be in the nominative case.

A predicative nominative should be in the nominative case.

The Objective Case: The direct object should be in the objective case.

An object of a preposition should be in the objective case.

Possessive Case: the pronoun is in the possessive case.

Appositives: A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same case as the word to which it refers to.

Examples:

Case- Many of the employeess were mad about the low pay.

Nominative-Do you know if you sold them tickets..

Direct- I was suprised when i got a baseball for christmast.

Chapter 11: Using Modifers Correctly


Modfier: Is a word group that makes the meaning of another word specific.

Adverb: Adverbs normally end with -ly but not alll do.

Adjectives: They also end with -ly so you usually cant tell if its a adverb or adjective.

Linking Verbs: They are followed by a predicate adjective.

Good: Is an adjective, this is used to modify a noun or a pronoun.

Well: Use well to modify a verb.

Irregular Comparision: The comparision and superlative degree.

Superlative Forms: Use the compartive degree when comparing two or more things.

Else: Use other or else when comparing on member of a group or more.

Double Comparing: Avoid using double comparision.

Double Negatives: Avoid using doble negatives

Preposistional Phrases: Consist of a phrase, a noun, or pronoun.

Particaple Phrases: Consis of a verb form.

Adjective Clauses: Is a subordinate clause that edifies a noun or pronoun.

Examples:

Modfier-My brother knows how to be awesome.

Adverb- You have a nice pitch.

Adjective- I can run fast.

Linking Verbs- i love a powerful movie.

Good- you did a good job today .

Well- I do well is basketball.

Irregular Comparision- Good, Better, Well, Worse

Superlative Forms- The second pitch was a hommer.

Else- We wern't letting anyone else get in the door.

Preposistional Phrase- The movie was by James Brown.

Participle Phrase- I was yelling for help.

Adjective- The book that we read was about shoes.

Chapter 12: A Glossary of Usage

Glossary: A alphabetical list of special terms or expressions.

A: Use "A" in front of a word with a consonant sound.

An: Use "an" in front of a word with a vowel.

Accept: Accept is a verb that means to receive.

Except: Is a word that means to leave out or to exclude.

Ain't: Means completley perpared.

A Lot : Should always be written in two words

As: See like, as

As If: To see as a thought

At: Do not use after where

Bad: Is an adjective

Badly: Is an adverb

Examples:

A- I would like a burger

An- He was An enigneer.

Accept- I accept that i wont play till next year.

Exept- Everyone wanted to play except me.