Diabetes mellitus

Definition, types of Diabetes, Causes, Symptoms $ treatment

Diabetes mellitus (Definition and types of Diabetes)

Definition:

The diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both.

Types of Diabetes:

There are total three types of diabetes:

i) type 1 diabetes

ii) type 2 diabetes

iii) Gestational Diabetes

Causes:

The diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate(lacking something), or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience frequent urination, they will become increasingly thirsty and hungry.

Symptoms:

Central (Brain): polydipsia(Feeling extremely thirst), polyphagia(feeling of eating many different types of food), lethargy(especially in type 1 diabetes)(sleepy) and Stupor (especially in type 1 diabetes)(feeling insensibility).

Eyes: blurred vision

Breath: smell of acetone(especially in type 1 disease) (organic compound which has formula: CH3COCH3)

systemic:(especially in type 1 disease) weight loss.

Respiration: (especially in type 1) hyperventilation (an increased depth and rate of breathing greater than demanded by the body needs).

Urination: Polyuria ( production of to many dilute urine) and glycosuria (excess amount of sugar in urine)

Gastric (especially for type 1 disease): Nausea(A feeling of sickness with an feeling of vomit), Vomiting and stomach ache.


Treatment:

i)Type 1 disease:

The body does not produce insulin. This lasts a lifetime, there is no known cure. But Patients will need to take insulin injections for the rest of their life. They must also ensure proper blood-glucose levels by carrying out regular blood tests and following a special diet.

so that the diabetes level doesn't increase.

ii) Type 2 disease:

The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin.this usually lasts a lifetime.Some people may be able to control symptoms by losing weight, following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercise, and monitoring their blood glucose levels. but some people also need to take insulin in tablet form or in injection.Overweight and obese(fat people) people have a much higher risk of developing this diabetes in compared to those with a healthy body weight.

iii)Gestational Diabetes:

This type affects females during pregnancy. Some women have very high levels of glucose in their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose.Majority of patients can control their diabetes with exercise and diet. But some of them will need to take some kind of blood-glucose-controlling medications.Uncontrolled gestational diabetes can have the difficulty during childbirth. The baby may be bigger than he/she should be.


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