Erica Murray's The Great Depression

AP US History 1st Period

Causes and Effects of the Depression, 1929-1933

Wall Street Crash

Began in the October 1929 and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the U.S., when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout. The clash the beginning of the 10 year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries

Causes of the Crash

The 1929 Stock Market Crash was a result of various economic imbalances and structural fallings. These are some of the most significant economic factors behind the stock market crash of 1929.

Effects of the Crash

The effects of the WSC were felt all around America as people starved, businesses become bankrupt and unemployment rose. This ere was known as the Great Depression and would last for another 10 to 20 years

Hoover's Policies

Responding to a Worldwide Depression

The Great Depression had worldwide causes and effects. Reactions to this economic earthquake were varied. The most starting change in western Europe was the rise of Nazism.

Domestic Programs: Too Little, Too Late

The most important domestic decisions of Herbert C. Hoover were related to The Great Depression. He devised policies and passed bills to improve the home conditions of the poor. He also passed a public works program with a budget of $150 million in 1932. Another important step was the formation of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation in 1932.

Despair and Protest

Thousands of hard-pressed veterans descended on Washington in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand the cashing out of their pensions. Hoover's use of the army to disperse generally orderly demonstrations was viewed as heartless by many Americans.

The Election of 1932

Franklin Roosevelt's campaign was short on specifics, but long on optimism. Unlike four years earlier, the electorate was unsettled by the Depression and voted overwhelmingly for change.

Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal

F.D.R.: The Man

Americans celebrate Franklin D Roosevelt as the president who led them out of the Great Depression of the 1930s and through the greatest global conflict in history. For all his famous informality of manner, he was perhaps the most regal leader the United States has ever had, revelling in the exercise of executive power.

New Deal Philosophy

Roosevelt explained to the American people that his New Deal program would seek to deliver relief, recovery, and reform—the so-called "3 Rs."

The First Hundred Days

The first hundred days is a sample of the first 100 days of a first term presidency of a president of the United States. It is used to measure the successes and accomplishments of a president during the time that their power and influence is at its greatest.

Other Programs of the First New Deal

There's the CCC. The agency that provided employed to millions of urban youths who couldn't find jobs in the cities. These were conservation and reforestation type jobs. They also created camps, national parks, planted trees, built irrigation, etc.

There's the CWA. It put 4 million to work on temporary projects : construction of roads, schools, parks, and various infrastructures. Work-relief wasn't meant to be government welfare. To be employed was to give people self-esteem and dignity.

But those go under employment projects.

You should probably pick one from each section of federal programs : Business Assistance and Reform, Farm Relief/Rural Development, and Employment Projects.

The Second New Deal

Relief Programs

Social Security: Passed as the Social Security Act, it provided benefits (money) for the elderly and the unemployed. Social Security is still a central part of our public assistance program today.

  • National Labor Relations Act: Originally known as the Wagner Act gave organized labor rights to bargain collectively with businesses and forced employers to allow unionization of their employees.
  • Works Progress Administration: Passed in April 1935, the WPA put unemployed people to work in public works projects across the country. It contained a much wider variety of programs than earlier agencies: theatrical productions and writing projects as well as the construction of schools, playgrounds, and other public facilities.
  • Reforms
  • Social Securities Act and the National Labor Relations Act
  • The Social Security Act
  • The Social Security Act was drafted during Franklin D. Roosevelt's first term by the President's Committee on Economic Security, under Frances Perkins, and passed by Congress as part of the Second New Deal. The act was an attempt to limit what was seen as dangers in the modern American life, including old age, poverty, unemployment, and the burdens of widows and fatherless children. By signing this act on August 14, 1935, President Roosevelt became the first president to advocate federal assistance for the elderly.
  • The Election of 1936
  • The election took place as the Great Depression entered its eighth year. Incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt was still working to push the provisions of his New Deal economic policy through Congress and the courts. However, the New Deal policies he had already enacted, such as Social Security and Unemployment benefits, had proven to be highly popular with most Americans. Roosevelt's Republican opponent was Governor Alf Landon of Kansas, a political moderate.