Paper 2 Review

Topic 5

For what reasons and with what success did the U.S. adopt a policy of Containment between 1947 & 1962

Containment?

-introduced by the Truman Administration, describes the foreign policy pursued by the United States after WW2.

-attempted to contain the spread of communism by the Soviet Union

-it was introduced based on the work of George F. Keenan (Anonymous-X article)

  • After WW2, Soviet and US became enemies
  • Keenan wrote: " The Soviets perceived themselves to be in a state perpetual war with capitalism."
  • Soviets would use controllable Marxists in the capitalist world as allies

President Truman enforced the Containment policy by:

  1. Truman Doctrine- America would give vast financial aid to stop the spread of communism

-US gave $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey to fend off Communist revolutions

-1947 US announces the Marshall Plan 12 billion to be spent rebuilding Europe (Stalin regards this as a threat)

2. Military Solution:

-Creation of NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization

~was an attempt to follow the doctrine known as "Collective Security." (Western European nations would seek to protect themselves together)

How was it contained?

-Berlin

-Korea

-Cuba

Berlin

  • was divided into 4 zones
  • Communists wanted to take West Berlin because they had "Expansive Tendencies."
  • US didn't want to lose their zone= they resisted
  • Soviets blockade Berlin
  • Airlift - flying supplies to people

Korea

  • After the war, Korea divided by 38th parallel
  • Communist North Korea invades US supported South Korea
  • US pledged to help because=stop spread of communism
  • failed= North Korea and China went to communism

Cuba

  • Fidel Castro came to power in Jan. 1959
  • Two years later, the US invaded to take him out of power
  • He turned Cuba communist
  • US found out that missiles were being placed in Cuba (Cuban Missile Crisis)
  • April 1963, US and Soviet reached an agreement-missiles from Cuba and Turkey to be withdrawn