Ebola Virus

By: Mary Irion

Symptoms

Symptoms- Chills, dehydration, fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, malaise, sweating, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, vomiting blood, sore throat, coughing up blood, eye redness, headache, mental confusion, red spots on skin, pain in the abdomen, chest, joints, or muscles.

Immune system

The immune system will target cells that represent the first line of defense. It infects the cells called dendritic cells which are the white blood cells that display signals of an infection.The T Lymphocytes are also infected and these are the white blood cells that could destroy other infected cells before the virus grows. Next the virus will start to replicate very quickly. Then it will work in parts by inhibiting interferon which is a type of molecule that cells hinder further reproduction. Then Ebola's proteins, then binds to and blocks a transport protein on the surface of the immune cells. Lymphocytes don't become infected with the virus, but instead has some lacking in toxic signals which will prevent these primary immune cells from putting up a fight.

Replication

The Ebola virus does not divide to replicate, instead it attaches to the host's DNA. Then when the cell divides the Virus duplicates with it. Then when the virus triggers, the virus breaks out of the cell. In this process the virus kills the cells and doubles at the same time. This virus is actually harmless until it replicates.

Viral genome gets incorporated into specific sites of host cell chromosome.

Viral genome replicates every time host nucleus divides.

· Host cell remains viable as long as the viral genome remains in this “temperate” state.
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Treatment

There is currently no vaccine for this Virus, but there are a few things that can help. Here are their names and what they do-

  • Intravenous fluids- to help balance electrolytes.

  • Treatment includes an experimental serum that destroys infected cells.

  • Patients diagnosed with Ebola virus disease are put in quarantine and their blood oxygen levels and blood pressure are kept at the right level and their body organs supported.

Causes of Ebola

Ebola, is a rare disease caused by infection with one of the Ebola

virus species. Ebola can cause disease in humans and nonhuman primates like monkeys. Ebola is caused by an infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus.Ebola is spread through direct contact with blood to blood contact or other bodily fluids.

Prevention

There are 3 steps in how to prevent Ebola

1. Avoid contact with blood and any body fluids.

2. Practice careful hand hygiene, including washing hands with soap and water or an alcohol- based sanitizer

3. try to avoid burial rituals that involve handling the body who died from Ebola.
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