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Istanbul City Walls/ Fish Holy Spring - Istanbul
Historical Istanbul City Walls is totally approximately 20 kilometers 520 meters in length, is attracting for local and foreign tourists’ attention. In front of the walls of the Marmara and Golden Horn, there are no moat and outer walls.
The first place in Istanbul was founded on the hill by which the oldest walls of the city were surrounded the old Istanbul peninsula. So-called “Sur-i Sultaniye ".
The second city wall which the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus built at the end of the 2ndcentury BC.
The third city walls were built by the Emperor Constantinus I, who made Istanbul the capital of the Roman Empire, at the time of, first known as Rome, former into the Eastern Roman era, latter the Byzantine Empire.
Today, the location of the walls surrounding the Historic Peninsula was created by the Emperor Theodosius II in 439 AD by expanding the old walls. The gates, which are the only places where the entrances to the city and exits can be made due to being surrounded by walls, constitute the important points for the city. There are around 57 gates during the history in Istanbul. The gates surrounding between starting from the gate of the Topkapi Palace to the Golden Horn, from here to Yedikule and again back to the Topkapi Palace walls, such as Topkapi, Edirnekapi, Catladikapi, Kumkapi, Yenikapi gates are used today.
The real name of Fish Holy Spring is “Zoodohos Piyi” means life-donating resource. It is dedicated to the St.Virgin Mary and is the best-known spring of Istanbul. It is located in the Greek Orthodox Monastery of Virgin Mary outside of Silivrikapı gate on Istanbul city walls.
The cellar of Holy Water place is covered with vaults. There are on the right side the pool where spring water flows through four fountains and on the left side the marble iconostasis. The cellar is decorated with pencil ornaments on the ceiling and walls is equipped with various icons. There are colorful fish in the pool. Red and black fish is a myth:
At the conquest days’ time, a man who fried fish near the holy spring was told that the Turks had taken over the city, he answered: “As much as I believe that the fish in that pan will bounce back to life, I believe that the Turks took the city!” In that time, the fish come alive and jump into the pool. These fish are named to the location
Arslantepe Tumulus - Malatya
Malatya is the most developed city in terms of economic and population in the Eastern Anatolia Region. A part of Nemrut Mountain, which is listed in the UNESCO World Heritage, is also among the southern border of Malatya. Apricot in this region is famous, sweet, delicious. History in that place goes back to BC 5000 years. Therefore, there are many historical monuments, places, buildings. One of them is Arslantepe Tumulus and ancient city.
There is an ancient city on the north of the fertile crescent area in Mesopotamia. The ancient city is now in UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List.
1. Ancient city was named from two lions which stand mutual at the entrance,
2. Scientists and archaeologists indicated that there were settled and developed transition to ancient state because of one to North side many immigration from the fertile crescent in Anatolia.
3. The temple 5500 years old was found,
4. Palace is an evidence of transition to the state order in the Late Hittite period,
5. The palace is considered the oldest palace in the world by archaeologists,
6. According to the examination on the found throne, it became the first mudbrick-built palace in the world.
7. There is on an ancient trade road. The availability of 21 weapons was proved that the raw material came from the Caucasus.
8. The oldest king tomb was found.
9. 6 meters thick city walls and village settlements just outside.
10. There are reliefs of 3000 years.
Harput Castle - Elazığ
Elazığ is located in the east of Malatya. Having flat plain like Malatya province has enabled the construction of an airport. To the north of Elazığ are the water areas formed by the Euphrates Basin. Ferry services are provided on the road to Tunceli. The Hazar Lake, the Hazar Baba Mountain around the lake, Harput Castle are the tourist attractions’ areas. The region differs with up to 150 food kinds. Kürsübaşı, one of the traditional chat meetings in Anatolia, is one of the values in UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity from this region.
Harput is a hilly place where Elazığ people used to live. The scenery is beautiful from the hill. It is possible to visit a lot of old historical monuments in this area. As it is understood from the presence of numerous tombs, Elazığ is known as the city of Muslim Saints. Ulu Mosque, Arap Baba Masjid and Mausoleum, Kurşunlu Mosque, Sarahatun Mosque, Cemşitbey Bath, Assyrian Virgin Mary Church can be mentioned in some monuments. Harput Castle to defend the hill was built by the Urartians in the 8th century BC. According to an anecdote, because of the water shortage during the construction of the castle, it was said that milk instead of water was used in the mortar preparation by the order of the ruler at the time, so the castle was called “Milk Castle“.
Munzur Valley/Story of Munzur - Tunceli
Tunceli is located at the junction of two streams that feed the Euphrates River continuously flowing to Mesopotamia. One of these streams is named Munzur and the other one is named Pülümür. When we come to the villages close to Ovacık District where Munzur River first rised, it can be seen a wide variety of trees. This region is called Munzur National Park. The area of 42 674 hectares of Munzur Valley was declared a National Park in 1971.
1600 plant species have been identified in Tunceli and at least one fifth of them are endemic. The word Munzur means “Noble Water”. Munzur's Breath – Munzur’un Nefesi (Gypsophila munzurensis) and White Beard – Ak Sakallı (Pedicularis munzurdaghensis), which now grow only in this region, are also given names to endemic plants. Sutluce Kengeri (Gundelia vitekii) plant is also endemic. Looking at wild life; hooked horned mountain goat, ur partridge, wood partridge, freckle partridge … are observed that many animals live. It is possible to camp, picnic, sport fishing, trekking, water and nature sports in the National Park. There is also a ski trail for winter sports. An environment has been prepared for the growth of various plants and wild animals in the city, which is surrounded by water and in which there is a small population. It is not difficult to predict the effect of this wonderful environment on people. The emergence and diffusion of the beautiful emotions from that nature gives to people has enabled to prepare the region’s stories, tales, and a dream world. One includes religious ritual; “The Story of Munzur”.
Munzur, located next to Agha, is known as a good person in the society. Once a day, when Agha decided to go to the pilgrimage to Mecca, he entrusted Munzur his village life. After a while, the wife of the agha prepared halva to be taken to the agha and asked Munzur to deliver it to Agha. Munzur completed the long road and left the halva next to the Agha and returned immediately. When Agha returned home, everyone was greeted with a present and Munzur's present with milk in a bowl. When he met Munzur, Agha told people, “Not come to me, go to Munzur!”. Since people had heard the story before, Munzur was pursued by everyone and Munzur quickly left. People kept following him. When it came to the foothills of the mountain, white water sprinkled like milk where the milk was poured. Moreover, Munzur has taken 40 steps. Every step has created a new water source. Those who came after him could not cross the river created newly. Munzur came in front of the rock at the foothill of the mountain and threw the bowl, left his baton and disappeared in front of everyone.
The rock here is considered sacred by the people of the region from the Alevi sect in Muslim and candles are lit. The high number of such places made Tunceli an important place and even a center for Alevi sect.
Kemaliye/Chained Rock – Erzincan
There is a settlement place located in the valley formed in the direction of the Euphrates River, which is located on the borders of Erzincan Province, but closer to the border of Malatya Province than the centre of Erzincan. It is also 130 km from the Divrigi Grand Mosque and Hospital which is listed in UNESCO World Heritage Site. Zincirlikaya, Kemaliye Houses and the Dark Canyon are popular places.
When Sultan Murad 4th on his way to Baghdad, Zülfikar Agha from Eğin (Old name of Kemaliye) joined. Satisfied with what he has done, the sultan asks for his wish. He said he wanted to build a settlement per river. When the houses started to be built around Kadıgölü, they were anxious that the rocks could fall down at the top of the houses. The Sultan helped to send an architect. Architect said: “We have made provision against fallen rocks; we tied by chains!”. After that day, the name of the rock became “Zincirli Kaya (Chained Rock)”. The rock, which is connected to chains, is important for local people who live under difficult winter conditions to show how to take precautions if they are done against nature disasters and motivate to work on them. Minstrels playing own instrument have said to have been inspired by this local landscape