Tundra Biome Project

by Ragan Cox

Tundra Biome Description

Tundra comes from the Finnish word "tunturia", which means a barren land. The ground is permanently frozen 10 inches to 3 feet (25 to 100 cm) down so that trees can't grow there. The bare and rocky ground supports low growing plants like mosses, heaths, and lichen. In the winter it is cold and dark and in the summer, when the snow and the top layer of permafrost melts, it is very soggy and the tundra is covered with marshes, lakes, bogs and streams that breed thousands of insects and attract many migrating birds.the arctic tundra is the worlds youngest biome,Located at latitudes 55° to 70° North, the tundra is a vast and treeless land which covers about 20% of the Earth's surface, circumnavigating the North pole.Extremely cold climate.Low biotic diversity.Simple vegetation structure.

Limitation of drainage.Short season of growth and reproduction.Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material.Large population oscillations.

Abiotic Factors:

The Tundra is cold through all the months of the year. Summer is a brief period of milder climates when the sun shines almost 24 hours a day. Even the sun can`t warm the tundra much. The short summer lasts only 6-10 weeks. It never gets any warmer than 45 or 50° F. During the winter the sun rarely comes out and it is dark most of the day. Winter temperatures do not reach above 20° F and average -20° F to -30° F. The Tundra has a cold and dry climate. precipitation totals 6 - 10 inches of rain a year, which includes melted snow.

Plant cover, rocks and places of water naturally thawing and freezing patterns of the ground. the ground is pushed and pulled producing tiny hills, valleys, slopes and porous regions. Continuous thawing and freezing force fragments of stone outward in a ringed pattern forming Frost Boils.

Biotic Factors:

Arctic Moss, is an aquatic plant found growing on the bottom of the tundra lake beds and in and around bogs. They have tiny roots, tiny leaves and no flowers.

Bearberry, is a low growing evergreen that has thick bark, leathery leaves and a flower that has five pedals in a pale pink or white color. These are normally found in dry non-nutrient soil.

Labrador Tea, the plant will grows to be 4-5ft in the southern latitudes of the tundra and will creep over the ground like carpet in the northern latitudes. It has woolly branches with narrow leaves and at the end of each branch are tiny clusters of white flowers.

The Snowy Owl, have large yellow eyes set in front of the face, and large ears hidden under dense white feathers. They weigh 4-6 pounds and stand 21-26 inches tall.

Harlequin Duck, get it`s name from the colorful costumes worn by harlequins. They have a buoyant, compact body with strong webbed feet and weigh 1-1.5 pounds.

Ermine, part of he weasel family and prefers cold northern climates. It`s coat is a chocolate brown with a white under belly. The Ermine weighs between 3-13 ounces and is 7-13 inches long.

Ecological Concerns:

More people have recently been populating the tundra to work in mines and in the oil industries. The development of new towns and roads have interrupted many of the animals migration and feeding patterns and has also caused damage to the permafrost. The continuing growth in population and industry threaten the future existence of the tundra.



Snowy Owl

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Harlequin Duck

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Arctic Tundra

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Abiotic Factors:


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