Roaring 20's

December 1929

Table of Contents

Nativism
  • The Return of Nativism
Politics
  • Harding's Scandal
  • Teapot Dome Scandal
  • Kellogg Briand Pact
  • Political Cartoon
Court Cases
  • Red Scare
  • Palmer Raids
  • Sacco & Vanzetti
  • Scheneck v. United States
Scopes Monkey Trials
  • John Scopes
  • Clarence Darrow
  • William Jennings Bryan
  • Final Verdict
Innovations, Inventors & Culture

  • Aviation
  • Literature
  • Tom Ford
Letter to the Editor
Political Cartoon & Analysis
Bibliography

Nativism

The Return of Nativism

Our nation has restricted Southern and Eastern Europeans from immigrating over to the United States. Our government has suggested that they should be seen as undesirable to native born Americans mainly due to them stealing natives' jobs and threating their peaceful way of living. Even the Nativists are irritated by the many immigrants coming over to our country. This reborn scene of nativism has brought about the Ku Klux Klan, and the Trial of Sacco and Vanzetti. The Ku Klux Klan has denounced Catholics, Jews, blacks, immigrants and organized labor. With the rebirth of nativism the Emergency Quota Act, the Immigration Act, and the National Origins Act were created to suppress the immigrants.

Politics

Harding's Scandal

We all know Harding for being our 29th president of the United States. The main reason why he pulled out the win was by promising a "return to normalcy" after the World War. Harding had a major setback when it was discovered that his administration was plagued by corrupt, which usually occurs once a president abuses their high political power for their own personal gain. Warren G. Harding unfortunately didn't get the chance to finish his term due to him having a heart attack while in the third year of his term.
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Teapot Dome Scandal

The Teapot Dome Scandal involved national security, and big oil companies in the highest levels of the government of the United States. This scandal occurred decades before when the government and U.S. navy officials were contemplating a new global presence, and they soon realized they needed a fuel supply that was more reliable and more portable than coal. Consequently, Navy administrators asked Congress to set aside federally owned lands in places where known oil deposits most likely existed. These “naval petroleum reserves” would not be drilled unless a national emergency made it necessary.

Kellogg Briand Pact

The Kellogg-Briand Pact was an agreement to outlaw war signed in August of 1928. Also known as the Pact of Paris since it was signed in Paris, the pact was one of many international efforts to prevent another World War, but it had little effect in stopping the rise of militarism of the 1930s or preventing World War II.

Political Cartoons

Political Cartoons were applied in order to keep everyone aware of what is going the world, their country, etc. These were used in every political function during the 20's mainly because it made people actually want to read the news, but in a different, more entertaining way.

Court Cases

Red Scare

Even though the World War had ended, hysteria continued to remain. Once the Russian czar abdicated a successful revolution of Bolshevic workers occurred. America sent over troops in attempt to help stop the Reds. All these efforts were only done in vein since the Bolshevics just ended up killing the entire royal family, as well as slowly taken control over the entire nation.

Palmer Raids

The Palmer Raids were conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice, but the raids were led by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. The main goal of the Palmer Raids were to arrest foreign anarchists, communist, and radical leftists, many times they would be deported. A side effect from the raids were brought up due to the social unrest following the World War. These raids are looked upon as the factor that started the Red Scare.

Sacco & Vanzetti

Two Italian-Americans, that went by the names Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, were convicted of robbery and murder. The evidence presented against them were disproven in court, but these two men were known radicals, so the judge and jury ruled against them. Then six years after the ruling of their case, their final appeal was rejected and they were sentenced to death.

Scheneck v. United States

The case of Scheneck v. United States is one that questions the Supreme Court's enforcement of the Espionage Act during the World War. Due to the defendant distributing leaflets to draft-age men. By urging resistance towards induction Scheneck had a chance to be convicted for the attempt to obstruct the draft, which is seen as a criminal offense.

Scopes Monkey Trial

John Scopes

John Scopes is an educator in Dayton, Tennessee. He was found guilty for teaching the science of evolution to his class. Scopes saw this trial as an opportunity to fight for academic freedom. In his trial Scopes was defended by the great Clarence Darrow, while William Jennings Bryan was on the prosecution's side. Once he was released from jail, Scopes hid out within a christian community where it was believed that guilty verdicts was a forgone conclusion.

Clarence Darrow

Darrow was an American Lawyer as well as the leader of the American Civil Liberties Union. Darrow specialized in defending teenage thrill killers Leopold and Loeb. He is also known for defending Ossian Sweet and John Scopes in the Monkey Trials of 1925. He is looked upon as a "Sophisticated country lawyer" and continues to be notable for his wit. These attributes led him to become a well-known lawyer and civil libertarian.

William Jennings Bryan

William Jennings Bryan was a dominant force within the populist wing of the Democratic Party. He served two terms in the House of Representatives, and was the United States Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson, which he ended up resigning from due to his pacifist position of the World War. He was seen as an opponent of Darwinism on the grounds of Religion and Humanitarian views. During the Scopes Monkey Trial Bryan was on the side of the Prosecution due to his religious and humanitarian outlooks.

Final Verdict of the Money Trials

At first scopes was found guilty and fined $100, but later it was overturned based on a technicality. The overall purpose of the trial was to get publicity, which did serve its purpose. Many reporters flocked to Dayton to get the story of the trial that featured two of the most famous lawyers around. The trial was basically a theological contest and a trial on whether modern science should be taught in science.

Innovation, Inventors & Culture

Aviation

We must first know what aviation is. Aviation is the operating or flying of an aircraft. Aviation was just being established in the world and it has not been involved in our miltary for long. Aviation during the 20's truly helped many countries develop. The Argentine Navy created a naval aviation division and funded the founding of the Naval Aviation School. Then following the Argentine Navy, the Peruvian Navy established their own Naval Aviation Corps. We later see airframes being created in Nagoya, Japan, then in 1927 aircraft engines were created. Aviation gave each country that adopted it now had an advantage in war and was able to transport people to far places quickly.

Literature's impact

Literature helps a nation develop in the future tense by teaching it to children and in the present tense by giving adults the ability to communicate properly. The higher one countries literature percentage is, their chances increase of having a well developed country. America taught literature in their schools and they became more developed with the creation of cars, use of aviation, farming, etc. The same happened with Japan. Japan had progressed substantially quicker.

Henry Ford

Henry Ford was an American industrialist and the founder of Ford Motor Company, Ford established industrial terms like mass production and assembly line. Don't get it confused, but Ford was not the inventor of the automobile. Ford instead created the first manufactured the first affordable automobile. Ford transformed the automobile into a practical conveyance instead of an expensive curiosity. The Ford T automobile evolved transportation and altered the American industry as a whole. Ford wasn't just known for creating the affordable automobile, but he was known for his pacifism during the first year of the World War and he also published the antisemitic texts such as the book The International Jew.

Letter to the Editor

The Harlem Renaissance

The Harlem Renaissance was when blacks moved from the south and into more northwestern cities, and they discovered that the new metropolises came with their own challenges. A community of African-Americans established multiple newspapers and gathered in many urban centers like Harlem. Through the Harlem Renaissance, black music, painting and literature blossomed in a supportive community. These artistic and musical contributions flourished, especially through the speakeasies, where black musicians and patrons sometimes mingled with whites. For the first time, African-American cultural gained nationwide recognition and respect.

Political Cartoon & Analysis

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The man in armor, the ax, and the barrel containing bags of money all symbolize a part that has to deal with organized crimes. The man in armor that has the cop shooting at him alludes to how the law can't stop anything that bootlegger or the gangs want and/or chose to do. Organized crime and the law are the main that stand out within the picture because it tells me that people who participate in organized crime will never respect the law because they feel that they are more important than the law. In this cartoon we see that the man has a relaxed demeanor and is supplied with an ax and is leaning on a barrel of money. The organized crime on the man in armor, the gang rule on the giant ax, and the bootleg profits on the large barrel are depicting how the law has no plan to stop them and that there's so many of them that it's impossible for the law to stop them. The message presented is that organized crime will always seem to exist in our communities since they're on such a large scale that the law can't stop them all at once.

Bibliography

Best news source of the 20's

Edited by Bryson Dowdell