Turkmenistan: Struggle to Freedom
1920s - 1930s
The Turkmen joined forces with Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, and Uzbeks in a rebellion against the rule of the soviet union. This cause the formation of TSSR ( Turkmens Soviet Socialist Republic ) from the tsarist province of Transcaspia. By the late 1930s, Soviet reorganization of agriculture had destroyed what remained of the nomadic lifestyle in Turkmenistan, and Moscow controlled political life. During the next half-century, Turkmenistan played its designated economic role within the Soviet Union and remained outside the course of major world events.
In the 1980s the was a major liberalization movement had very little impact on Russia. However in 1990 the Supreme Soviet of Turkmenistan declared sovereignty as a nationalist response to perceived exploitation by Moscow.
It finally happened. In October 1991 the communist leaded of the USSR was force to approve the independence.
After independence Niyazov continued as Turkmenistan's chief of state, replacing communism with a unique brand of independent nationalism reinforced by a pervasive cult of personality. A 1994 referendum and legislation in 1999 abolished further requirements for the president to stand for re-election (although in 1992 he completely dominated the only presidential election in which he ran) making him effectively president for life.
In 2002 the assassination attempt towards Niyazov was blamed on former foreign minister, Boris Shikhmuradov. During 2002-2004 tensions between Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan arose. Niyazov was convinced the Uzbek had a part in his assassination attempt. By 2004 a series on treaties restored their friendly relations.