# Shift Happens

### Instructional Shifts that Raise Student Achievement

Steve Leinwand at CMC-North Ignite

## Incorporate ongoing cummulative review into every day's lesson

- A deliberate and carefully planned reliance on ongoing, cumulative review of key skills.
- Use cumulative review to keep skills and understanding fresh and to make connections.
- Classes should not waste time and start with substantive math to clarify understanding.
- Brief review give an opportunity to re-teach when necessary.

## Adapt what we know works in our reading programs and apply it to math instruction

- All numeric and 1 word answers are greeted with a request for clarification.
- Only reasonable homework is given and then checked for understanding & explanation, not just for right answers.
- Probing for ways that answers are found.

## Use multiple representations of mathematical entities

- Frequent use of pictorial representations to help students visualize the math.
- Frequent use of the number line and bar models to represent numbers & word problems.
- Frequent opportunities for students to draw or show and then describe what is drawn.

## Create Language-Rich classroom routines

- Ongoing emphasis on the use and meaning of mathematical terms along with their connections to the real-world.
- Student and teacher explanations that use precise mathematical terms and notation.
- World walls!!!!

## Take every opportunity to build NUMBER SENSE!!!

- An unrelenting focus on estimation and justifying estimates to computations & solutions.
- An unrelenting focus on a mature sense of place value.
- Frequent discussion on how to "out smart" the problem using number sense.
- Put the calculator aside and estimate or compute mentally when appropriate.

## Build from graphs, charts, and tables

- An abundance of problems drawn from the data presented in tables, charts, and graphs.
- Opportunities for students to make conjectures and drawn conclusions from data presented in tables, charts, and graphs.
- Frequent conversion, with and without technology, of data in tables and charts into various types of graphs with discussions of their advantages, disadvantages, and appropriateness.

## Tie math to such questions as How big? How much? How to increase the natural use of measurement throughout the curriculum

- Ask students explicitly, How big? How much? How far? How many?
- Measurement is an ongoing part of daily instruction and the entry point for Rich Tasks.
- Students are frequently asked to find and estimate measures.
- Students are encouraged to use referents, such as comparing sizes of different objects.

## Embed the mathematics in realistic problems and real-world context

- Embed of mathematical skills and concepts in real-world situations & contexts.
- Use "So, what questions arise from these data or this situation."
- Problems that emerge from teacher asking, "When and where do normal human beings encounter the mathematics I need to teach?"

## Make "Why?" "How do you know?" and "Can you explain?" classroom mantras.

- Every student answer is responded to with a request for justification.
- Both teacher and students consistently and frequently use "Why?" "Can you explain that?" "How do you know?"
- Dismissive responses such as "No," "Wrong," "Not quite," and their equivalents should be absent from the classroom.