Influenza

By Alli Campanile

Symptoms

Pain in muscles, cough, chills, dehydration, fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, body ache, sweating, congestion, sneezing, runny nose, headache, chest discomfort, nausea, shortness of breath, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes


Causes

If someone who is sick, spreads the infection through the air and someone inhales it, they can get sick as well. This includes: coughing, sneezing, or talking. It could also be spread if someone with the infection touches something and spreads the germs. Then, if someone else touches that object and touches their nose, mouth, or eyes, it could get them sick.

Immune Cells involved in immune response

The active immunity reacts quickly by recognizing the virus to control the viruses replication. Toll-like receptors in endosomes bind to a single stranded RNA which are important triggers to the effects of influenza. If you have had influenza before then B cells have already made antibodies to fight the particular type of virus either preventing infection or lessing the result.

How the Virus Replicates

Usually, the virus targets the upper respiratory tract and has many was to invade a host. The virus enters the host through an endosome and enters the nucleus, but the virus RNA is negative and then transported into positive by polymerase proteins and exported out of the nucleus (Lytic Cycle).

Treatment

Medicines: Peramivir, Zanamivir, Oseltamivir

Peramivir, which is a neuraminidase inhibitor of neuraminidase that blocks the virus from being replicated. Zanamivir, helps treat influenza A and B by the respiratory tract as a neuraminidase inhibitor. Oseltamivir works the same as Zanamivir, but is in capsule form.

Prevention

Get a flu vaccine, avoid contact with the ill, wash your hands, cover nose while sneezing, clean infected surfaces, take antiviral drugs if your doctor prescribes them
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