Low-Vision and Blindness
Source: NIH National Eye Institute
2010 Glaucoma Prevalence Rates U.S.
Black Americans age 40 and older are at the highest risk of developing the disease compared with people of other races.
2010 Cataract Prevalence Rates U.S.
By age 75, half of white Americans have cataract.
2010 Age-Related Macular Degeneration Prevalence Rates U.S.
The disease is most common among older white Americans, affecting more than 14 percent of white Americans age 80 and older.
2010 Glaucoma Prevalence Rates U.S.
High School Placements for Blind and Low Vision Students
A stronger focus on inclusion has emerged since the application of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) cornerstones. Today 95% of students with disabilities are included in the general education classroom, with 90% of students with Blindness and Low-Vision.
"In this arrangement, blind students can take some or most of their classes, including advanced and elective courses, with their non-disabled peers. In doing so, students derive all of the benefits of placement at a school for the blind, such as access to assistive technology and specialized instruction in braille, while experiencing full inclusion with their sighted peers."
Snellen Eye Chart
Video: Causes of Blindness and Low-vision
Accommodations in an Educational Setting
In a classroom setting, students with visual impairments face challenges regarding instruction or assignments that are structured in aspects that focus on visual acuity. To reduce these challenges, feature:
· Verbal description of class activity, such as when a show of hands is requested, stating how many hands were raised
· Class assignments available in electronic format, such as computer disk, to allow access by computers equipped with voice synthesizers or Braille output devices
· Assistive lab equipment (e.g., talking thermometers and calculators, light probes, and tactile timers)
For more accommodations, visit:
"A Simple Philosophy Turned A Blind Student's Dream Into Reality"
Expanded Core Curriculum
1. Compensatory or functional academic skills
2. Orientation and mobility
3. Social interaction skills
4. Independent living skills
5. Recreation and leisure skills
6. Career education
7. Use of assistive technology
8. Visual efficiency skills
Incorporating these skills into an expanded curriculum lead to learning braille, study and organizational skills, spatial understanding, and any adaptation of the existing curriculum. Additionally, by strengthening these areas, students improve cooking, personal hygiene, money management, time monitoring, and organization. These are often skill areas that children with visual impairments do not develop because they do not observe them in others and they are often not explicitly taught.
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Low-Vision at home
Home strategies for Low-vision and blindness
-Foster a love of reading at a young age by reading books that have rhythmic schemes or auditory qualities
-Focus on tactile activities such as a petting zoo or instruments
-Learn to read braille with your child
For more tips for parenting a child with low-vision or blindness, go to:
Another issue relating to low vision is the psychosocial impact of a visual impairment. Children growing up with a visual impairment can experience many negative consequences including:
- feeling like they look different, either because they cannot visually verify how others look or because they wear glasses or use optical devices,
- feeling clumsy because they drop things or bump into objects.
- feeling like an outsider because they cannot take part fully in activities,
New England Low-vision and Blindness
Low-vision and Blindness iOS Apps:
A New Model of Education for Blind and Low Vision Students:
American Foundation for the Blind. Educational Interventions for Students with Low Vision.
Corn, A. L., & Koenig, A. J. (1996). Foundations of low vision. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.
Mobility International USA. High School Placements for Blind and Low Vision Students. 2015.
New England Low-vision and Blindness. Students, Schools and Universities Low Vision and Blindness Resources. 2014
Mobility International USA. "A Simple Philosophy Turned A Blind Student's Dream Into Reality."
NIH NEI. Glaucoma, Open Angle: 2010 U.S. Age Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Ethnicity. Dept. of Health and Human Services. 2010.
NIH NEI. Cataract: 2010 U.S. Age Specific Prevalence Rates for Cataract by Age and Ethnicity. Dept. of Health and Human Services. 2010.
NIH NEI. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: 2010 U.S. Age Specific Prevalence Rates for Age-Related Macular Degeneration by Age and Ethnicity. Dept. of Health and Human Services. 2010.