Research on Animals

How Research on Animals Benefits Humans

History of Animal Research

2nd and 4th century- 1st reference in Greek writings

1890s- Germ Theory proven by Louis Pastuer using a sheep

1922- insulin isolated in dogs, helped revolutionize treatment of diabetes

1970s- leprosy vaccines and antibiotics tested on armadillos then given to humans

1996- Dolly the Sheep becomes 1st mammal to be cloned from adult cell

20th century- toxicology tests 1st preformed on animals

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1st Laws About Animal Testing and Organizations

1822- 1st animal protection law enforced in Britain

1876- Cruelty to Animals Act, 1st law specifically regulating animal testing in Britain

1860s- ASPCA founded, opposing use of animals in medical research

1966- Laboratory Animal Welfare Act passed, 1st big legislative success for ASPCA

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Regulations or Laws Concerning Research on Animals

In U.S. any experiment can be preformed on animal if scienfically justified

Institutional Animal Care and Use Commitee and institution's vet must be consulted first

There must be no other options for experiment

Pain relief is given unless it interferes with study

The three r's- replacement (preform tests without animals if possible), reduction (use least amount of animals as possible), refinement (reduce any pain animals suffering, if they can)

Different Types of Research

Pure Research- sees how organisms behave, function, and develop

Applied Research- goal is to solve specific and practical problems

Xenotransplantation- transplants organs and tissues of one species into another

Cosmetics Testing- tests cosmetics (especially makeup) on animals, very controversial, almost fully banned in Europe

Drug testing- pharmaceuticals must be tested on animals before available for human use

Used by military to develop weapons, vaccines, test battlefield surgical techniques, and defensive clothing

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How It Benefits Humans

Much of the research that is done on animals benefits humans. With the exception of cosmetics testing, I believe that testing drugs and medications on animals has to be done in order to achieve many of our future medical achievements. Some experiments done on animals are cruel and unnecessary, but with all things there is bad in the good. Many medical achievements have been made because of research on animals. Much of today's cancer research involves testing on rats and mice. Although some people strongly disagree with animal research, many people would die or be seriously injured if medications and such were given to them without any tests on living creatures. That is what happened before all medications had to be tested on animals. That is why I feel that animal research is an important part of our present and future achievements, even if a few animals are hurt in the process and some people become upset by it.