Hittites

Mckenzie Hosier And Nathan Artt

Intro/ basic info

Intro:

Society Name- Hittites

Time Period Which They Existed – The Hittites populated the area between the 19th and 12 centuries BC.


Why did they exist in this time period and put the society in Historical


Context – They traveled from the Caucasus Mountain area. The Hittites pushed the people who were living here further southward. To put the Hittites in Historical context they lived at the same time as the Egyptians.


Geographic Location/Maps – The Hittites migrated into the area of Asia Minor around 1900 BC. It is the land which is now modern day Turkey. They established their kingdom on the Hatti Plain and most likely their name came from this area. It is located between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The geography was diverse which helped the development of their society. The geography included mountains, grassy plains, and river valleys. The economy was based mainly on grains and sheep raising and later metal works and were the earliest makers of iron.

Social Structure

Social Structure also revolved around feudalism. When a vassal died a tax could paid and land would be given to his son. People would mostly not be loyal to just the king they be loyal to other vassals as well. The people most often didn't ever meet the king or interact with him at all. People could even pay money to not have to fight directly for the king, this was called 'shield money'. The jobs that stood out for the people were troops (which was a big one because of the free land), traders because it was a big market, and tool makers

Cities


Larbarna, the first leader of the Hittites made his first Capitol in Hattusas. The captured Aleppo and claimed their land in Syria.

Technology

The were the first people to come up with a way to smelt iron. The Hittites changed the normal way and made iron tip weapons instead of bronze. These weapons helped them in war. The people used their iron tipped spears and swords to fight in a phalanx formation. This formation helped to conquer enemies.

Religion

They mostly had the religion of the old Sumerians and Babylonians. They worshiped multiple Gods. They were polytheistic just like their ancestors, but unlike them the priests were not their kings as it was in Mesopotamia. They were always not a theocracy.

Writing

The writing system they used was cuneiform. It was created by the Sumerians to keep track of the empires that were expanding during the fourth millennium Before Christ. Also, on top of that it was used to record people's values and their history. This form of writing is no longer used today.
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Government


The Hittites were run by many rulers, but their main form of government and social life was feudalism. When something went wrong the king had to provide troops and he was in charge of them. Basically feudalism meant that in exchange for land from the king called people must protect and fight for him (basically be in his army) these were called vassals. This form of government was believed to have begun in France in the 10th century. Where the traits of this government is hard to know when started but scholars believe that it started when Germanic soldiers made oaths to their chiefs.

Primary source (picture below)

Primary source document


Treaty of Kadesh





"Treaty of Kadesh." Photos/Illustrations. Carl Rasmussen (http://www.HolyLandPhotos.org). World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.



Fragment of the Treaty of Kadesh, the agreement that ended the battle between the Hittites and the Egyptians for control of the Levant in 1275 BCE.

Artifacts (pictures below)

Artifacts


Hittite bronze standard


Bronze and silver standard in the shape of a deer, Hittite, third millenium BCE, from Alaca Hoyuk, Turkey. The Hittites were an ancient people that migrated into Asia Minor around 1900 BCE and built an empire using skilled adoption of technological innovations such as metallurgy. They were especially skilled at developing new techniques for shaping metals and engraving metal

Hittite warrior frieze


Hittite freeze warrior


Frieze of a Hittite warrior, found in the royal palace at Babylon. The Hittites were an ancient people that migrated into Asia Minor around 1900 BCE and built an empire using skilled adoption of technological innovations for military and agricultural.


Hittite sculpture from Yazilikaya


Relief sculpture, from around 1200 BCE, depicting figures armed with sickle-like objects, at the holy Hittite site of Yazilikaya in present-day central Turkey.



Entrance to the Great Fortress at Hatussas


Lions flank the entrance to the Great Fortress at Hatussas in present-day Turkey. Hattusas was the capital and greatest city of the Hittite empire during the second millennium BCE.

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Analyze

Overall this society was very structured. They focused a lot around their army. Much of their government and social life was revolved around the army in one way or another. Even the inventions they made were weapons to use in battle. They were a pretty well working and strong society. Although they often got into fights with Egypt over borders. They were run like most societies back then, with a king, but what set them apart was their focus on military.

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Mla citation

Davis, Paul K., and Allen Lee Hamilton. "Hittites." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 17 Sept. 2014


"Hittites." Hittites. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.


"Treaty of Kadesh." Photos/Illustrations. Carl Rasmussen (http://www.HolyLandPhotos.org). World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.


"Hittite bronze standard." Photos/Illustrations. De Agostini/Getty Images. World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.


"Hittite warrior frieze." Photos/Illustrations. Instructional Resources Corporation. World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.


"Hittite sculpture from Yazilikaya." Photos/Illustrations. iStockphoto. World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.


"Entrance to the Great Fortress at Hatussas." Photos/Illustrations. Shutterstock. World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.