by Sofia Miceli
Opposed to the inclusion or participation of those different from oneself, especially those of a different racial, ethnic, or social background (Mifflin).
When did it all start?
Segregation in Schools
This is a school in Ohio in the 1900s, posing for a picture. The white students were placed in front, while the black students were put in the back. Racial segregation in schools was enforced by the Jim Crow laws. In 1929, Missouri ruled that "“Separate free schools shall be established for the education of children of African descent; and it shall be unlawful for any colored child to attend any white school, or any white child to attend a colored school (Behring)."
Racial segregation wasn't just in schools - intolerance was everywhere. Whites and blacks were separated in, along with education, buses and trains, theaters, bathrooms and water fountains, employment, and much more, all to keep black people and white people from associating.
Black people and white people lived in separate areas in towns. Black people suffered much more than white people in poverty, since many had poor education and it was hard to get a job as a black person. People didn't want to hire black people for pay, and so blacks were the lowest class while white men were middle class (Horne).
Segregation in Schools
On December 1st, 1955, 42-year-old African American woman Rosa Parks, when asked by the bus driver to follow the rules of segregation, refused to give up her seat for a white man on a bus. She was arrested, and when she appealed her conviction, the legality of segregation was questioned, and she was the start of the movement of equality for all races (Ford).
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was formed in 1909 with the goal to "ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination (NAACP)". They used courts to fight to overturn the Jim Crow laws and continued to fight for equality of races.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King's famous "I Have A Dream" speech is what inspired the most significant growth in strength of the civil rights movement. He spoke of his dream of a world of equal rights in front of 250,000 people, black and white, and made a mark in history (A&E).
1930s and Today
After the 9/11 attack on the Twin Towers, many people started thinking that being Muslim meant that you were a terrorist.
The Westboro Baptist church is famous for picketing soldiers' funerals and conducting anti-gay protests. They've also been known to criticize Jews and Catholicism.
"Racial Segregation in the American South: Jim Crow Laws." Prejudice in the Modern World Reference Library. Ed. Kelly Rudd, Richard Hanes, and Sarah Hermsen. Vol. 2. Detroit: UXL, 2007. 333-357. Global Issues In Context. Web. 02 Jan. 2014.
Barnes, Catherine A. Journey from Jim Crow: The Desegregation of Southern Transit. New York:Columbia University Press, 1983. Web. 02 Jan. 2014.
Ferris State University. "The Origins of Jim Crow." Ferris State University. 2012. Web. 02 Jan. 2014.
Behring Center, Nation Museum of American History. "Jim Crow Laws." Separate Is Not Equal. Web. 02 Jan. 2014.
NAACP. "100 Years of History." The NAACP. 2009-2014. Web. 02 Jan. 2014.Horne, Gerald. "1. Justice Denied." Powell vs. Alabama. Canada: Gerald Horne, 1997. 9-40. Print.
The Henry Ford Museum. "The Story Behind The Bus." The Henry Ford. 2009. Web. 02 Jan. 2014.
A&E Television Networks, LLC. "Black History Timeline. History. A&E, 1996-2014. Web. 02 Jan. 2014.