Chemistry Of Life

Anna Hummel

Water

  • Adhesion is an attraction between different substances. Adhesion wouldn't combine with the same substance because that would be cohesion.
  • Cohesion is the attraction of the same substance. If you try combining 2 different things, that would be adhesion.
  • Polarity is anything that has charge.
  • A pH scale is a scale based on the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.

General Information on Macromolecules

Macromolecules

  • Macro is the root word of large, so the word macromolecule means large molecules. A macromolecule is made up of smaller molecules. There are four types of macromolecules. They are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
  • Carbohydrates are large groups of organic compounds in foods and living tissue. They also include sugars, starch, and cellulose.
  • Lipids are nonpolar molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water. Lipids are important to cell membranes.
  • A protein is large molecule that makes a chain with smaller molecules called amino acids.
  • Nucleic acids are a long chain of small molecules called nucleotides.


Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrates are organize compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
  • They are the key source of energy and are found in most foods.
  • Monosaccharides are the building blocks of carbohydrates and single sugars.
  • Polysaccharides are chains of monosaccharides with 3 or more

Lipids

  • Lipids are nonpolar molecules that's are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water. They have fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes.
  • This is the important part of the structure and function of the cell membranes.
  • Some lipids have some light-absorbing compounds called pigments.
  • Fats are lipids that stores energy.


Proteins

  • A protein is a large molecule formed by amino acids.
  • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Amino acids have polar and nonpolar molecules.
  • Proteins fold into compact shapes and they form by how the proteins amino acids interact with water and each other.
  • Some proteins are enzymes and make chemical reactions and others have an important structural functions.


Nucleus Acids

  • A nucleic acid is a long chain of smaller molecules called nucleotides and a nucleotide has 3 parts to it : a sugar, a base, and a phosphate group. A phosphate group has phosphorus and oxygen atoms.
  • The two types of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA. They each have 4 kinda of nucleotides.