Emily Mullins, Chase Shortt, Muhammad Ashraf- 3
Gaining Freedom and Getting Better in Africa and Asia
After World War II, many angry people wanted freedom to make everyone equal. They wanted to choose their own futures. It was hard to deal with mean rulers that took away the peoples' freedoms.
After the Indian National Leaders. a hindu group was made to give freedom to Indian people. Then after a battle of Hindu and Muslim people, many died after a British General killed them. In the 1920s Ghandi arrived to help India gain Independence in a peaceful way,Although there was more violence between HIndus and Muslims, while they worked together peacefully against the British.
India Gaining Independence but stuck with Religious Fighting
After World War II Britain gave India independence, but Radical Hindus and Muslims started to fight each other within the country. There were two main movements, one was following Mohandas Ghandi who believed there could be a peace between Hindus and Muslims. The second was led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah who wanted to make a separate country for Muslims. The result of this was the creation of Pakistan where most of the people followed Islam and India where people were Hindu. The chaos came with people trying to leave and move to their chosen country.
After World War II, the Africans wanted freedom from Britain, and began to fight against England's power. South Africa was the main colony, and created its own laws, trying to hold their own power away from Britain. They created the African National Congress to fight against Britain. After South Africa, the North worked to gain freedom. The people worked together to overthrow the king. In central Africa, it was harder to gain freedom. Their resources were all used up, and there weren't enough people that went to school to take charge to fix their cities. All of the countries worked to get their freedoms from all over parts of Europe.
Rwanda: Mass Killing
It was hard to make a nation in Africa, Rwanda showed this. A lot of trouble between two groups in Africa, the Hutu and the Tutsi. This trouble was caused by racial problems and offending human rights. After Rwanda was free in 1962, the Hutu fought against the Tutsi leaders, this caused a lot of death in the country
New things in South Africa: The Start and Finish of Racial Seperation
The Union of S. Africa was formed in 1910 by combining two British colonies and two Dutch colonies. The British and Dutch were treated much better than the native Africans. Africans had no say in any importing government things. A system to separate Africans and whites was put into place. The white people in S. Africa got better treatment than the Africans. In response to this unfair treatment the Africans created the African National Congress in 1950. This was a group of well educated Africans including their leader, Nelson Mandela, who wanted to get rid of the unfair separation. The group started to protest peacefully at first but soon fighting started to happen and this changed the groups view. The leader Nelson Mandela was taken to prison because he wanted to change the unjust separation. After a lot of time and talking the African people and the rest of the world persuaded the S. African government to release Nelson Mandela and for the separation laws to be abandoned.
The Middle East
The countries in the Middle East were put under the control of European countries. All of the Middle Eastern countries were unhappy because people they did not know were taking their land.
Israel: Balfour Reveals Mess
During World War 1, the Jewish people living in Britain asked Arthur Balfour to move them to their rightful home in Palestine. But, this was a problem because there were already Muslims in that area, so this caused some trouble. After making the Balfour Declaration of 1917, Jewish people were allowed to move to Palestine, splitting the land with the Muslims.
The Jewish people get their own State in 1948
In 1948 the United Nations (group of countries that work together to promote other countries to work together) created two Palestines (took a the country of Palestine and broke it into two parts). One for Jews and one for Muslims. When the first leader of Israel announced its creation of the Jewish Homeland, Muslims from six different Arab countries attacked Israel. This is known as the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. As Jews came to Israel from all over the world, Arab countries continued to fight with Israel. In 1967, there was a short Six Days' War which resulted in Israel gaining lots of land from different Arab countries. Only Egypt has signed a treaty saying that they recognize Israel as a state this was in return for their land. In the years after the Six Days' War, the Israelis and the Palestinians have fought over the taken land. The Palestine Liberation Organization is a group that fights against Israel and is trying to claim back their lost land. In 2000, a new intifada (group of terrorists against Israel) started to make Palestine and Israel fight more. Their were many terrorist attacks on Israel, leading to them building a wall to keep Palestinians out. The other big countries created a "Roadmap to Peace " in 2003, which gave a plan to get to peace throughout the area. This plan however, was slowed by a man named Yassir Arafat (former PLO leader and acting president at the time) until his death in 2004. The 2005 election in Palestine resulted in Mahmoud Abbas who signed an agreement to stop fighting in the region. Under a "disengagement plan" created by the Israeli government, all Israelis living in a part of the fought over land were to leave by August 2005. This helps the relationship between Israel and Palestine, but the countries much reach many agreements to have lasting peace in the region. The problem is much bigger inside Palestine because of financial problems among their population. The government is also separated into two different sides. The Hamas was created as a new Muslim Brotherhood in 1987. They openly support terrorism, which makes them targets of many Israeli military attacks. Though both the sides of government want Palestine to succeed, the Hamas and Fatah are very divided, and fight a lot. An overthrow of the Fatah let the Hamas gain the power in part of the Palestinian land. Israel has said that they will work the Fatah, but only see the Hamas as a terrorist group.
Fighting in Iran
The leader in Iran, Reza Shah Pahlavi, gained power in 1925. He decided to follow the Western countries and helped bring Iran new technologies and ways of getting land and education. Many people were unhappy with his changes because they went against the Qu'ran. Others believed the efforts to change their country were not doing enough. The shah reacted to people going against him with violence, and ended up losing power from his actions. This caused mass fighting among the citizens and brought the rise to Kohemeini and eventually, Iran was under rule of their religion, Islam. After the fighting between citizens ended, another war started against Iran and Iraq in the Iran-Iraq war. After Kohemeini died, there were many problems between Islamic-rule supporters and people seeking more freedom. Lately, Iran has been creating big, nuclear weapons that they claim will be used "peacefully". The making of these weapons has caused major issues with other countries of the world that fear the use of the weapons as ways to kill others.
Oil: A Whole Lot of Goo
The Industrial Revolution gave a lot of attention to the Middle East because it had most of the world's oil. After the Industrial Revolution oil was used as fuel. This caused the rest of the world to want this oil, causing the Middle East to gain billions of dollars. Since most of the world was after the oil this started some wars. As it saw this, the Middle East and other oil regions joined to make the OPEC, this was an organization that controls the flow of their oil, and where it goes.