Battle of Vicksburg
May 18, 1863-July 4, 1863
Why was the Battle fought?
The Battle of Vicksburg was a very fierce battle, with many lives lost. This battle was fought because of Grant’s idea to split the Confederacy down the middle by the Mississippi, and take the West easily. This battle was part of what is called The Vicksburg Campaign. The first attackers was the Union army because it was a Siege to split the Confederacy. To split the Confederacy was a big objective for Ulysses S. Grant, but he took it on anyway to win a major battle in The Civil War.
Generals in the Battle
General Ulysses S. Grant
General Ulysses S. Grant was the Union commander during the Battle of Gettysburg. He initiated the famous Siege of Vicksburg, which was a genius military campaign which allowed for a Union victory.
Lieutenant General John Pemberton
Lieutenant General John Pemberton was the main Confederate commander during the Battle of Vicksburg. He set up the stronghold which allowed Vicksburg to stand for so long.
General Ulysses S. Grant
Quote of John Pemberton
"I think it due to myself, in bringing this portion of my report to a conclusion, to state emphatically that the advance movement of the army from Edwards Depot on the afternoon of May 15 was made against my judgment, in opposition to my previously expressed intentions, and to the subversion of my matured plans. In one contingency alone I had determined to move toward Jackson; the safety of Vicksburg was of paramount importance; under no circumstances could I abandon my communications with it."
General John C. Pemberton
Siege of Vicksburg
Map of the Battle
U.S. Grant's Letter to his Father
JUNE 15, 1863
ULYSSES S. GRANT
The following is a letter from U.S. Grant to his father explaining his position and the situation during the Siege of Vicksburg.
I have received several letters from Mary and yourself, but as I have to deal with nineteen-twentieths of those received, have neglected to answer them.
All I can say is that I am well. I have the enemy closely hemmed in all round. My position is naturally strong and fortified against an attack from outside. I have been so strongly reinforced that Johnston will have to come with a mighty host to drive me away.--I do not look upon the fall of Vicksburg as in the least doubtful. If, however, I could have carried the place on the 22nd of last month, I could by this time have made a campaign that would have made the State of Mississippi almost safe for a solitary horseman to ride over. As it is, the enemy have a large army in it, and the season has so far advanced that water will be difficult to find for an army marching, besides the dust and heat that must be encountered. The fall of Vicksburg now will only result in the opening of the Mississippi River and demoralization of the enemy. I intended more from it. I did my best, however, and looking back can see no blunder committed.
Confederate Casualties: 805 killed, 1938 wounded, and 29620 missing and captured
What were the Effects of this Battle?
Union victory at this battle allowed for the capture of the Confederate river fortress of Vicksburg, Mississippi on July 4, 1863. With the capture of this, the Union had the Mississippi River, which split the Confederacy in half, and Confederate forces in the east could no longer get supplies and troops sent from the West. However, the North could now use the entire length of the Mississippi River for transportation. The fate of the Confederacy was all but sealed.