Chemistry of Life

Brianna Strausser and Laura Whitfield

Water

  • Adhesion- the attraction of molecules of a different kind.
  • Cohesion- the attraction of molecules of the same kind.
  • Polarity- the water's positive and negative charges cancel each other out.
  • Heat Storage- water absorbs heat slowly and holds the energy longer
  • pH scale- a scale that tells how acidic something is. It goes from more acidic to less acidic (bases).


Water is a vital part of life. Water is used to help maintain homeostasis. It releases the heat in our body by sweating.

Macromolecules

A macromolecule has its own characteristics that help identify it. There are 4 major macromolecules. They are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are a key source of energy in the human body. It is found in mostly in food. Its ration of Carbon to Hydrogen to Oxygen is 1:2:1.



There are 4 types of carbohydrates.

  1. Monosaccharides
  2. Disaccharides
  3. Oligosaccharides
  4. Polysaccharides

Proteins

Proteins are biological molecules that are made up of building blocks called amino acids. A protein becomes active when it twists and folds into shapes. Proteins have many functions. Its important to study the shape of proteins because it helps find diseases.


Lipids

Lipids have four parts. Three fatty acids and one glycerol. Lipids are hydrophobic, which means they don't like water. Saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats are lipids. Saturated fats are long chains of carbon with all bonds filled by hydrogen. Unsaturated fats has one double bond which causes a "kink" in the chain. Polyunsaturated fats has more than one double bond in the chain.


Nucleic Acids

There are three types of nucleic acids. They are DNA, RNA, and ATP. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid. ATP means Adenosine Triphosphate. RNA means Ribonucleic Acid.


Enzymes

  • All enzymes are proteins, but not all proteins are enzymes
  • An enzyme reacts on a substrate. A substrate is a substance in which an enzyme reacts.
  • Enzymes only act on certain substrates
  • An enzymes shape determines its activity
  • Enzymes have folds that make pockets. These pockets make active sites.
  • Enzymes need the help of activation energy. An example of activation energy are the friction of the match head on the sandpaper starts the match.
  • The temperature and PH make the enzymes react faster or slower. They react faster for higher temperatures and slower for lower temperatures.