Body Systems Project Part II

5th Period

Integumentary System Diseases

Dermatitis

Types:

-Contact Dermatitis: Reaction in the skin from exposure to allergens and irritants.

-Seborrheic Dermatitis: Reaction in the skin from over production of skin oil and irritation.

-Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema): Reaction in the skin from inherited tendencies toward sensitive skin and malfunction in the immune system


What is it?

-Itchy inflammation in the skin.

-Not a contagious or dangerous condition.


Symptoms:

-Itching, pain, stinging, burning, blisters, thick and scaly skin, sores, and swelling at the inflammation area.


Causes:

-Contact dermatitis: Allergic reactions to different substances or objects. Example: A person with an allergy to a specific detergent might have an inflammation in the skin.

-Seborrheic dermatitis: Oily skin or hair usually brought on by extreme stress.

-Atopic dermatitis (eczema): Cause is unknown, but theories suggest a combination of dry skin and an autoimmune reaction (a reaction found in asthma) might cause atopic dermatitis.


Treatment Options:

-Apply a wet and cool compress to relieve the itching in an atopic dermatitis.

OR

-Take a cool bath with baking soda or colloidal oatmeal with water.

-Drug therapies to reduce redness and itching.

-Use specific herbs or cream to relieve the itching and swelling.


How do I avoid this?

-Nutrition: Avoid eating common food allergens, eat more vegetables, whole grains, and essential fatty acids.

Atopic Dermatitis - Information for Patients and Families - The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Acne Vulgaris

What is it?

-Common skin disorder that affects areas of the face, back, and chest with blackheads, whiteheads, and pimples.

-Oil and skin cells become trapped in the pore, allowing bacteria to invade the area and an inflamed pimple to occur.


Symptoms:

-Whiteheads, blackheads, and pimples can occur in the chest, back, face, beck, or shoulder area.

-Cystic lesions, large and deep pimples, can also occur; these are very painful.


Causes:

-Occurs when dead skin cells and oil clog the skin's pore.

-Hormone changes during puberty leads to over production of oil.

-Eating chocolate or greasy foods can cause some people to have over production of oil.

-Genetics; can occur in families.


Treatment Options:

-Keep your skin clean by washing your skin once or twice a day with gentle soap or acne wash.

-Avoid using skin products; instead use noncomedogenic products.

-Do not pick at already existing pimples.

-Use acne cream to treat several pimples.


How do I avoid this?

-Gently wash and care for your skin every day.

-Avoid heavy sweating and wash as soon as you finish your activity.

-Wash your hair often and keep the hair away from the face.

-Avoid using hair products such as gel.

-Avoid touching the face.

-Wear soft, cotton clothing under sports equipment.

-Avoid exposure to oils or harsh chemicals.

Acne (Understanding Disease: Dermatology)

Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis)

What is it?

-Fungal infection that develops between the moist areas between the toes and other parts of the foot.

-It is related to other fungal infections such as ringworm.

-It is a contagious, but not a severely dangerous disease.


-Symptoms:

-Itching, stinging, and burning between the toes or soles of the feet.

-Itchy blisters.

-Cracking and peeling of the skin.

-Excessive dryness of the skin.

-Thick, crumbly, ragged, or discolored toenails.

-Onychomycosis, infection in the nail, can occur.


Causes:

-Mold-like fungi, dermatophytes, become attracted to damp and closed environments.

-Damp socks and shoes in warm and moist conditions.

-Contact of an infected person through a towel or floor.


Treatment Options:

-Ointment, lotion, power or spray for mild cases.

-Oral medications such as Sporanox or tropical medications such as Miconazole for more severe cases.


How do I avoid this?
-Keep your feet dry, especially between the toes.

-Go with natural materials such as cotton and wool.

-Change socks and stocking regularly.

-Wear light, well-ventilated shoes.

-Alternate pairs of socks accordingly.

-Protect your feet in public places.

-Treat your foot by using powder.

-Do not share shoes with others.

Athlete's Foot

Careers in Integumentary System

Name: Dermatologist

College degrees: Medical Degree (M.D. or D.O.), 4 years in training, medical or surgical year internship, and 3-year residency.

Local Colleges: Baylor University, UT Southwestern, Texas A&M, etc.

Activities: Works in laboratories for new treatment techniques and solutions.

Rubs medication onto the skin and shine ultraviolet light on the skin.

Performs surgery for specific diseases.

Skills: Math

Communication

Decision-making/Leadership

Decision-making is the most important skill, because you have to make the right choice for a better outcome of the patient's skin.

Traits: Responsibility (You have to be responsible of you patient's illness)

Intelligence (You have to be intelligent in several subjects in order to know the treatment)

Trustworthiness (You have to be trustworthy enough for your patients to feel comfortable)

Average annual pay: $161,490

3 Careers: Plastic Surgeon, Immunodermatologist, Pediatric Dermatologist. All three careers are growing in the U.S.

Opinion: I'm not interested in pursuing these careers, because I'm not interested in the skin and the different illnesses occurring in the skin and performing surgery.

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DermTV - How to Become a Dermatologist [DermTV.com Epi #243]

Digestive System Diseases

Appendicitis

What is it?

-Appendix becomes inflamed and fills with pus.

-Pain is felt around the navel to the lower right abdomen.


Symptoms:

-Pain around the navel to the lower right abdomen.

-Tenderness occurring after pressure is applied to lower right abdomen.

-Pain worsens if coughed, walked, or other movements.

-Vomiting and nausea.

-Loss of appetite.

-Low-grade fever and constipation.

-Inability to pass gas, diarrhea and abdominal swelling.



Causes:

-Obstruction, or when a food waste or hard piece of stool blocks the opening of the cavity running the lengths of the appendix.

-Infection resulting in an inflammation.



Treatment Options:

-Surgery to remove the appendix or called appendectomy or laparoscopic appendectomy.

-Draining an abscess before appendix surgery (the abscess is drained by placing a tube through the skin and into the abscess if the appendix has burst and an abscess has formed around it).


How do I avoid this?

-Eat green, leafy vegetables.

-Specific herbs reduce the effects.

Appendicitis

Diarrhea

What is it?

-Loose, watery stools occurring more frequently than usual.

-More frequent amount of trips to the restroom and a greater amount of stool.

-Loss of water and salts.


Symptoms:

-Frequent, loose, watery stools.

-Abdominal cramps.

-Abdominal pain.

-Fever.

-Blood in the stool.

-Bloating.


Causes:

-Viruses such as Norwalk virus causes diarrhea.

-Bacteria and parasites through contaminated food or water such as Giardia lamblia.

-Medications such as common antibiotics causes good and bad bacteria to be destroyed, causing a upset of the natural balance in the intestines. The disturbance leads to an infection with bacteria.

-Lactose Intolerance to several products such as milk leads some people to be affected by it.

-Fructose found in fruits and honey for people having a hard time digesting it.

-Artificial sweeteners such as mannital.

-Surgery after abdominal surgery or gallbladder removal surgery.

-Other digestive system disorders such as Crohn's disease.


Treatment Options:

-Specific antibiotics.

-Treating to replace fluids and salts lost during diarrhea. Replacing fluids usually give the same benefits of drinking water.

-Adjust medications you're already taking.

-Treat underlying conditions such as diarrhea caused by an inflammatory bowel response.


How do I avoid this?

-Wash your hands frequently with soap or hand sanitizer.

-Serve food right away or refrigerate it.

-Wash work surfaces frequently.

-Use the refrigerator to thaw frozen items.

-Watch what you eat, drink, and antibiotics in a foreign country.

Monsters Inside Me s02e04: Lurkers ¦ 360p [1/3]

Gastroparesis

What is it?

-The muscles in the stomach does not function normally.

-The stomach does not empty property and can interfere with digestion.

-The blood sugar and nutrition is affected.


Symptoms:

-Vomiting.

-Nausea.

-Feeling full after eating only a few bites.

-Abdominal bloating.

-Heartburn or gastroesophageal reflux.

-Changes in blood sugar levels.

-Lack of appetite.

-Weight loss and malnutrition.


Causes:

-Damage to a nerve controlling the stomach muscles or vagus nerve.

-Damaged vagus nerves that can not send signals to the stomach muscles, resulting in food remaining in the stomach longer.


Treatment Options:

-Medications to control nausea and vomiting such as compro.

-Gastroparesis surgery which helps improve the stomach to empty food.

-Injecting a nerve toxin to allow the stomach to release the food inside the stomach.

-Implanting an electrical device allowing the control of the stomach muscles.


How do I avoid this?

-Eat smaller meals more frequently.

-Eat low-fiber forms of high-fiber foods such as vegetables.

-Eat mostly low-fat foods.

-Avoid fibrous fruits and vegetables such as oranges.

-Drink soups and pureed foods.

-Drink water throughout each meal.

-Do gentle exercise after each meal such as a walk.

Gastroparesis, What Is It?

Careers in Digestive System

Name: Gastroenterologist

College degrees: Bachelor degree, 4 years of medical school, 3 years residency, and more specialized gastroenterology training for 2-3 years.

Local Colleges: Baylor University, UT Austin, SMU, etc.

Activities: Diagnose and treat any diseases in the digestive tract.

Performs tests on patients.

Performs necessary surgeries for specific diseases.

Skills: Teamwork

High Education

Patience

Teamwork is the most important skill, because you should be able to work together with the other staff for a better outcome for the patient.

Traits: Intelligence (High education scores leads more vast knowledge)

Patience (You should be able to be patient around your patients and be understanding)

Cooperation (You should be able to cooperate with other people as a team)

Average annual pay: $315,038

3 Careers: Hepatologist, Nutritionist, Speech therapist. This career is growing in the U.S.

Opinion: No I'm not interested about this career, because I am not interested in the digestive system and its functions of digestion.

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Gastroenterologist Dr. David Weiss Interviewed on HD Colonoscopy

Skeletal System Diseases

Leukemia

The cause of most human leukemia is unknown. It is a kind of cancer in which abnormal white blood cells multiply in an uncontrolled manner. They interfere with the production of normal white blood cells. Leukemia affects the production of red blood cells.


Treatment:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Stem cell transplant
  • Radiation therapy
  • Biological therapy
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Arthritis

There are more than 100 diseases of the joints referred to as arthritis. Victims of arthritis suffer pain, stiffness, and swelling in their joints. If the cartilage is stiff it becomes damaged more easily. The cartilage, which acts as a shock absorber, will gradually wear away in some areas. As the cartilage becomes damaged tendons and ligaments become stretched, causing pain. Eventually the bones may rub against each other causing very severe pain.


Treatment:

  • Surgery (Joint Replacement and fusion)
  • Therapy
  • Disease-modifying drugs


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Scoliosis

A condition in which the spine bends to the side abnormally; either to the right or left. The curvature can be moderate to severe. Any part of the spine can be bent in scoliosis. The most common regions are the chest area or the lower part of the back.


Treatment:

  • Wearing a brace
  • Surgery


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Careers in Skeletal System

Name: Orthopedic physician


  • Education Needed:
    • 4 years undergraduate education
    • 4 years of medical school
    • 1 year of internship
    • 4 years residency
  • Colleges
    • UT Southwestern
    • Texas A&M
    • University of Texas
  • Skills:
  • Tolerate long hours
  • Work in exact measurements
  • Know all of the bones and functions
  • Know how bones work and grow
  • Work with sharp objects
Average annual pay:
  • $435,000
Similar Jobs:
  • Rheumatologist- doctor for arthritis
  • Chriopractor
  • Orthotist
Opinion:
  • No, I am not interested in this career. I am interested in being a dentist and orthodontist.



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Interview - Orthopedic Technologist (Jim Carragher)

Endocrine System Diseases

Diabetes

  • When the pancreas stop producing insulin
    • Description (of varieties):
      • Type 1: often found in children.
        • Autoimmune disease.
        • Pancreas produce little to no insulin.
        • Could be genetic.
        • Blood sugar needs to be monitored constantly.
      • Type 2: often found in adults.
        • Adult onset diabetes.
        • Often called a “lifestyle disease”.
        • Can be prevented with exercise as age increases.
        • Can also be triggered with age if other family has it as well.
      • Gestational: often found in pregnant women
        • Occurs during the second trimester of pregnancy .
        • Only occurs in about 4% of women.
        • If occurred once, can occur in other pregnancies.
        • Risk of getting Type 2 Diabetes increases if pregnancy occurs with older age.
    • Current treatments:
      • Regulation is the only option; there is no cure yet.
      • For Type 1, constant intake or monitoring of insulin is necessary.
      • For Type 2, regulation is not as specific.
      • For both, injections or pumps of insulin on a schedule are necessary.
      • With gestational diabetes, temporary regulation is necessary; because it this fades after pregnancy, it is not required to constantly regulate blood sugar levels.
      • Exercise is one of the most important helpful parts of keeping diabetes in check.
    • Potential future treatments:
      • Stem cell research with pancreatic cells and insulin regulation enzymes and hormones is ongoing.
      • It is not sure if a cure not centered around stem cell research will be found soon; stem cells are considered unethical.
      • Organ transplants have been discussed, but the logistics of growing a new one are still in debate.

Cushing’s Syndrome

  • When the body system makes too much of the hormone ACTH
    • ACTH urges pituitary gland to release cortisol
    • Could occur because of a tumor in the pituitary or adrenal gland or even other cortisol producing areas of the body
    • Can also occur from an overdose in glucocorticoid-steroid hormones or from naturally abundant and overwhelming glucocorticoid-steroid hormones
    • Soon after, a chain of events affecting the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, kidneys, and adrenal glands occurs, eventually heading towards the bloodstream
    • The importance of cortisol:
      • Blood pressure maintenance
      • Reducing the immune system’s inflammatory response
      • Balancing insulin
      • Regulating the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats
    • Current treatments:
      • Surgery: an adenomectomy can be performed to remove the tumor from the pituitary gland
      • Radiation: radiation exposure is used to kill off the tumor
      • Chemotherapy: similar to how cancer is treated, the specific portion of the body where the harmful agents are are attacked
      • Cortisol inhibiting drugs: to attack the root of the problem, cortisol inhibiting drugs are used to ensure that cortisol levels are in balance
    • Potential future treatment:
      • Accuracy with screen tests is being tested
      • New approaches to therapy
      • Less invasive means of surgery are important

Addison’s disease

  • A disease that occurs when the adrenal cortex in the brain is attacked
    • Causes:
      • Autoimmune disease
      • Infections (TB, HIV, fungal, etc)
      • Blood loss
      • Tumors
      • Blood thinning
    • Significant symptoms:
      • Salt cravings
      • Darkening patches of skin
      • Paleness
      • Fatigue/weakness
      • Loss of appetite cause by vomiting or diarrhea
    • Treatments:
      • Replacement corticosteroids drugs work, but they need to be taken for life
      • Always be on the lookout for blood pressure fluctuating situations; if needed then, hydrocortisone should be administered immediately
    • Potential Future Treatments:
      • Therapy that is short-termed
      • A quicker and less long-term solution to this disease
      • Any kind of surgery that could help

Careers in Endocrine System

Doctors: Endocrinologists
  • College degrees:
    • Minimum: Bachelor’s in biology, chemistry, and/or physics
  • Local college options:
    • University of Texas Medical School at Houston
    • UT Southwestern
    • Texas Tech
    • Baylor College of Medicine
    • University of Texas
  • Activities of interest:
    • Researching the many hormones and glands of body for future treatment
    • Creating diet and exercise regimes for patients with lipid disorders
    • Helping continue study on metabolic diseases
  • Success skills:
    • Research skills
    • Hard working abilities
    • Patience with research or information that has yet to be found or discovered yet
    • Most important: the ability to effectively and accurately research information about the body; extensive research about connections with other body systems is not always needed but should be able to be acquired
  • Career traits that are good:
    • Patience with waiting for research or information that has not yet been defined to come out
    • Resourcefulness, when it comes to learning new information
    • The ability to compare, contrast, and evaluate new information that needs to be analyzed
  • Average annual pay: $161, 490
  • Hand-in-hand careers:
    • Andrologist: help see how the male reproductive system is being regulated by hormones from the endocrine system
    • Gynecologist: allow women’s health the be maintained
    • Researchers: for future purposes, researchers study and gather data about what the past can let the future hold
    • Growth: 21.8% from 2002 to 2012; increasing
  • Chances of pursuing endocrinology:
    • Medium to high chance
      • Interesting job, but not something that is easy to be passionate about
      • Does have value, though
      • Careers are in demand and salary outlook is good; there are lots of pros
    • Unless good educational and financial opportunities are presented, chances will remain medium
Pediatrics: Treatment and Prevention of Diabetes in Children

Muscular System Diseases

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

  • People with chronic fatigue system suffer from post-exertional malaise (“Flu like” symptoms) after taking part in an activity.
    • Signs and Symptoms:
      • Fatigue
      • Loss of memory/ concentration
      • Sore throat
      • Enlarged lymph nodes
    • Treatment:
      • Antidepressants
      • Sleeping pills
      • Therapy (Graded Exercise and Psychological Counseling
    • Causes:
    • No direct cause has been found, but there are theories such as...
    • Genetic factors
    • Brain abnormalities
    • A hyper-reactive immune system
    • Viral or infectious agents
    • Psychiatric or emotional conditions
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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Tendonitis

  • Inflammation/irritation of a tendon of the fibrous cords (attach muscle to bone).
  • Signs and Symptoms:
  • Tenderness directly over the tendon
  • Pain with movement of tendons and muscles
  • Swelling


  • Causes:
  • Overuse
  • If the tendon does not have a smooth path to glide along


  • Treatment:
  • Rest and protect the area
  • Anti- inflammatory medication
  • Strength and physical therapy
  • Cortisone injections
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Tendonitis: an animation

Compartment Syndrome

Pressure in the muscle compartment.


Causes:

  • Repetitive activities
  • Trauma
  • Blood pressure


Symptoms:

  • Decreased sensation
  • Numbness
  • Paleness
  • Pain
  • Weakness


Treatment:

  • Surgery

Careers in Muscular System

Name: Orthopedic specialist
  • Deals with muscles.
  • Education Needed:
    • 4 years undergraduate education
    • 4 years of medical school
    • 1 year of internship
    • 4 years residency
  • Colleges
    • UT Southwestern
    • Texas A&M
    • University of Texas
  • Skills:
    • Tolerate long hours
    • Work in exact measurements
    • Know all of the bones and functions
    • Know how bones work and grow
    • Work with sharp objects
    Average annual pay:
    • $435,000
    Similar Jobs:
    • Rheumatologist- doctor for arthritis
    • Chriopractor
    • Orthotist
Muscular Skeletal Disorders

Cardiovascular System Diseases

Cardiovascular System Overview


  • Passes nutrients, gases, and blood to different parts of the body.
  • Blood distribution network.


INTRO TO THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.wmv

Hypertension

A. What is it?

  • High blood pressure.


B. Signs and symptoms:

  • Severe headache
  • Fatigue problems
  • Chest pains
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Blood in the urine
  • Pounding in your chest, neck, or ears


C. Causes:

Many factors can affect blood pressure, including:

  • How much water and salt you have in your body.
  • The condition of your kidneys, nervous system, or blood vessels.
  • The levels of different body hormones.


D. Treatments:

  • Special medication
  • Eat a heart-healthy diet, including potassium and fiber, and drink plenty of water
  • Exercise if you smoke
  • Limit the amount of sodium (salt) you eat
  • Reduce stress
  • Stay at a healthy body weight


E. Prevention:

  • Have your blood pressure checked regularly.

Hypertension Medical Animation

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

A. What is it?

  • Narrow arteries reduce blood flow to the limbs, so body parts don't receive enough blood flow.


B. Signs and symptoms:
  • Painful cramping in your hip, thigh or calf muscles after activity, such as walking or climbing stairs
  • Leg numbness or weakness
  • Coldness in your lower leg or foot, especially when compared with the other side
  • Sores on your toes, feet or legs that won’t heal
  • A change in the color of your legs
  • Hair loss or slower hair growth on your feet and legs
  • Slower growth of your legs
  • No pulse or a weak pulse in your legs or feet
  • Erectile dysfunction in men


C. Causes:
  • Caused by atherosclerosis
  • Blood vessel inflammation
  • Injury to your limbs
  • Unusual anatomy of your ligaments or muscles
  • Radiation exposure


D. Treatment:

  • Angioplasty
  • Bypass Surgery
  • Thrombolytic Therapy


E. Prevention:

  • Quit smoking.
  • Keep blood sugar in control if one has diabetes.
  • Exercise regularly (At least 30 minutes three times a week).
  • Lower cholesterol and blood pressure levels.
  • Eat foods that are low in saturated fat.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.


Diabetic Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.)

Coronary Heart Disease

A. What is it?

  • Narrowing of small blood vessels that supplies blood and oxygen to the heart.


B. Signs and Symptoms:
  • Chest pain/discomfort
  • Shortness of breath and fatigue
  • General weakness


C. Causes:
  • Tobacco
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Diet, physical inactivity, and obesity
  • High cholesterol and high blood pressure
  • Heredity


D. Treatment:

  • Angioplasty
  • Bypass Surgery
  • Minimally invasive heart surgery


E. Prevention:

  • Quit smoking.
  • Control high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes.
  • Exercise often.
  • Eat low-fat, low-salt diet (fruits, vegetables, and whole grains).
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Reduce and manage stress.
Overview of Coronary Artery Disease

Careers in the Cardiovascular System

Name: Cardiologist


College Degrees:

  • 3 years of undergraduate school
  • 4 years of medical school
  • 3 years of residency training
  • 2-3 years of internship
  • License


Local Colleges:
  • UT Southwestern
  • Baylor University
  • SMU


3 Activities:

  • Diagnose and treats heart and blood vessel problems.
  • Perform or recommend procedures or surgeries.
  • Does medical testing on the patient.


3 Skills:
  • Patience
  • Intelligence
  • Steady hands


Patience is the most important skill, because it is a virtue.


3 Traits:

  • Responsibility
  • Honesty
  • Respect


Average Annual Pay:

  • $200,000
  • Job prospect is growing greatly.


3 Careers:

  • EKG Technician
  • Vascular Technician
  • Heart Transplant Surgeon


Pursue:

  • No, I wouldn't like to pursue this career, because I'm not interested in the structures of the heart or the pathway of the blood.
Dr. David Sherman: Cardiologist

Lymphatic System Diseases

Lymphatic System Overview

  • Returns excess filtered blood plasma from the interstitial fluid as a lymph.
  • Provides accessory route for excess interstitial fluid to get returned to blood.


The Lymphatic System, Part 1

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

A. What is it?

  • Cancer of lymph tissues found in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and other sites.


B. Signs and Symptoms:

  • Exhaustion.
  • Fever.
  • Dry cough.
  • Breathing problems.
  • Severe itching.
  • Weight loss.
  • Nighttime sweating.


C. Causes:

  • Cause is unknown.
  • Past infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may contribute to the illness.
  • Patients with HIV infection are more likely to get the disease.


D. Treatment:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy


E. Prevention:

  • Unknown prevention methods.
  • But early testing and regular check-ups is recommended.
Hodgkin's Disease - What Is Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Lymphangitis

A. What is it?

  • Infection of lymph vessels (channels).


B. Signs and Symptoms:

  • Red streaks or lines visible on skin
  • Fever
  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Tenderness


C. Causes:

  • Bacteria such as Streptococci
  • Formation of nodules below the skin.
  • Acute streptococcal infection of the skin.


D. Treatment:

  • Analgesics to control pain.
  • Anti-inflammatory medications to reduce swelling and inflammation.
  • Warm moist bandages.
  • Surgery to drain an abscess.


E. Prevention:
  • Avoid injury to the skin.
  • Avoid insect bites.
  • Avoid scratching the skin.
  • Appropriate wound care.
  • Skin ulcer treatment.
Lymphangitis

Lymphatic Filariasis

A. What is it?

  • Severe disfigurement of affected body parts, occurring when mosquitoes harbor the larvae of certain nematodes bite to a person.


B. Signs and Symptoms:

  • Inflammation of the skin.
  • Inflammation of the lymph nodes.
  • Huge disfiguring enlargement of limbs.
  • Swelling known as lymphoedema.
  • Skin becomes thicker and darker.
  • Fever.
  • Chills.


C. Causes:

  • Nematodes which is transmitted to mosquitoes.
  • Microscopic parasite worms. (Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi).
  • Walking barefoot on red clay soil derived from volcanic rocks (basalt); metallic ions in the soil are toxic.


D. Treatment:

  • Oral dose of Albendazole
  • Ivermectin
  • Diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC)
  • Drugs.
  • Exercising the swollen body part.


E. Prevention:

  • Avoid mosquito bites.
  • Night: Sleep in air-conditioned room or sleep under a mosquito net.
  • Day: Wear long sleeves and trousers and use mosquito repellent to exposed skin.
Lymphatic filariasis

Immunologist:

Name: Immunologist


College Degrees:

  • PhD is required.
  • Medical degree is highly recommended.
  • Advanced degrees in immunology is greatly recommended.
  • 4 years of internship.


Local Colleges:
  • UT Southwestern
  • Baylor University
  • SMU


3 Activities:

  • Does reports over the diseases.
  • Researches new cures and other necessities.
  • Treats patients accordingly with surgery or medications of the lymphatic system or immune response system.


3 Skills:
  • Patience
  • Intelligence
  • Selfless


Selfless is the most important skill, because one has to be selfless in order to help the patients around the world.


3 Traits:

  • Responsibility
  • Honesty
  • Generosity


Average Annual Pay:

  • $81,870
  • Job prospects are increasing greatly.


3 Careers:

  • Biological Scientists
  • Immunology College Professor
  • Biochemists and Biophysicists


Pursue:

  • No, I wouldn't like to pursue this career, because I'm not interested in the structures of the lymphatic system where it captures the blood drained from the cardiovascular system and returns the blood supply back to the body and the immune response to it.
Dr. Craig Moffat, Allergist/Immunologist

Respiratory System Diseases

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

  • Pathophysiology: Complex syndrome of chronic inflammation of the airways, lung tissue, and pulmonary blood vessels. COPD can be caused by tobacco smoke.


Treatment:
  • Avoid smoking
  • pulmonary rehabilitation
  • surgery
  • Oxygen therapy
  • Physical Activity training
  • Medicines such as: Bronchodilators - similar to inhalers. They relax the muscles around airways to make breathing easier. Inhaled Steroids- Prevent airways from getting inflamed.
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COPD

Lung Cancer

  • Pathophysiology- Genes that are influenced in the pathogenesis or development of lung cancer are proteins that are involved in many processes including cell growth, Cell cycle, and angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels).


Treatments:
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Surgery
  • Stop smoking and Avoid secondhand smoke
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Lung Cancer

Emphysema

Pathophysiology- Lung disease that destroys the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs. The alveoli is unable to deflate completely and fill it with fresh air to have good amount of oxygen to the body.


Treatments:

  • Quit smoking
  • Bronchodilators
  • Antibiotics
  • Flu and Pneumonia vaccines
  • Lung transplant- for patients with severe diseases
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Lungs in Motion - Emphysema

Careers in Respiratory System

Pulmonologist-

College degrees:


  • Should have a four year college degree
  • Most Pulmonologists major in biology
  • Must complete an undergraduate degree
Colleges / Universities-
  • Baylor College of Medicine
  • Medicals Branch Hospitals
  • University of Phoenix

  • Payment: $180,870

  • Pulmonology does grow in the U.S. because there are many people that have common respiratory diseases, for example asthma. There are more than 23 million people who have asthma in the U.S. It is very important to have Pulmonology in all different States in order to help care for all respiratory diseases.

Interests-
  • Pulmonologists participate in clinical activities, They work with the members of the pediatric ENT(ears, nose and throat)group, Children's sickle cell team, and the sleep center, to provide excellent care for Children whose conditions overlap the specialties. I think that pulmonologists have a great opportunity to help treat children.

  • Pulmonary rehabilitation is interesting because it helps to reduce symptoms, decrease disability, and increase participation in physical and social activities. Pulmonologists working in a pulmonary rehabilitation center are more concerned about the patients health and they want their patients to improve the quality of life.

  • An important activity for Pulmonologists is that they need to be able

to make decisions and solve problems. They also need to analyze

information such as records, and examination results in order to

diagnose the disease the patient has.


Traits that I have that would make pulmonology fit for me:
  • Active Listening- pulmonologists need to give full attention to people talking and they need to ask questions in order to understand the concept.
  • Learning Strategies- They use training methods and procedures for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
  • Persuasion - they need to persuade others to change their minds and behavior.


Some skills that Pulmonologists need to succeed on are:
  • Speaking
  • Medicine and Dentistry: knowledge of techniques needed to treat
the patient's injuries, conditions, symptoms, and diseases.
  • Therapy and counseling: knowledge of principles and methods for
treatment and rehabilitation for physical and mental dysfunctions.

Pulmonology team up with other careers such as:

  • ENT
  • Respiratory Therapy
  • Immunology

Is it the Career that I would pursue?
  • I’m not really 100% sure because I’m still deciding. Pulmonology is a good career because you get to have the opportunity to learn more about the respiratory system and the diseases that occur.
  • You’ll also have the opportunity to help patients fight the disease and possibly find a cure them.
  • You can also team up with other specialties and learn from them as well.


Dr. George Rubeiz, pulmonologist

Urinary System Diseases

Nephrosis

Noninflammatory diseases of the kidneys.


Causes:

  • Different disorders that damaged the kidneys.


Symptoms:

  • Facial swelling
  • Foamy appearance of urine
  • Poor appetite
  • Weight gain


Treatment:

  • Keeping blood pressure low with ACE inhibitors
  • Corticosteroids and other drugs
  • Treating high cholesterol
  • Low-salt diet
  • Low-protein diet
  • Vitamin D supplements.
  • Blood thinners

Nephrolithiasis

A kidney stone.


Causes:

  • Genetic
  • Urine containing too much substances.
  • Not drinking enough fluids.


Symptoms:

  • Pain in the belly and groin area.
  • Abnormal urine color (blood)
  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting


Treatment:

  • Drinking at least 6-8 glasses of water a day.
  • Prescriptive medicine
  • Pain relievers
  • Surgical removals.

Urethritis

Inflammation of the urethra.


Causes:

  • Injury
  • Sensitivity to chemicals


Symptoms:

  • Blood in urine
  • Burning pain
  • Fever
  • Discharge
  • Frequent urination
  • Itching


Treatment:

  • Antibiotics
  • Pain relievers

Diseases and Conditions of the Urinary System.wmv

Urologist

  • Performs surgery on the reproductive system and urinary tract.
  • 4 years of undergraduate and medical school
  • 5 years in internship
  • Training in surgery and extensive medical training
  • Average annual pay: $206,770

Dr. Teresa Beam, Urologist

Female Reproductive System Diseases

Endometriosis

When cells lining the uterus grows in other areas of the body.


Causes:

  • Starting the menstrual cycle early.
  • Never having children.
  • Having frequent periods.
  • Closed hymen.


Symptoms:

  • Painful periods
  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Pain with bowel movements.
  • Back pain


Treatment:

  • Exercise
  • Medications
  • Surgery

Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID)

Infection of the uterus lining, Fallopian tubes, or ovaries.


Causes:

  • Childbirth
  • Endometrial biopsy
  • IUD Insertion of an intrauterine device
  • miscarriage
  • abortion


Symptoms:

  • Discharge
  • Fever
  • Pain in lower back
  • Bleeding
  • Chills
  • Lack of appetite


Treatment:

  • Antibiotics

Prolapsed uterus

Falling or sliding of the uterus


Causes:

  • Normal aging
  • Lack of estrogen
  • Pelvic tumor


Symptoms:

  • Frequent urination
  • Bladder infections
  • Low backache
  • Bleeding
  • Discharge


Treatment:

  • Surgery
  • Weight loss
  • Pessary

The Female Reproductive System

Gynecologist

  • Advises patients concerning diets and hygiene.
  • Cares and treats women.
  • Explains procedures.
  • Performs cesarean sections.
  • Treats diseases of female organs.
  • Directs and coordinates activities.
  • Pre-Medicine studies
  • First professional degree
  • Graduate medical school
  • License
  • Average Annual pay: $210,340

A Day in the Life - Obstetrician/Gynecologist

Male Reproductive System Diseases

Hypospadias

The opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis.


Causes:

  • Unknnown
  • Genetic


Symptoms:

  • Having to sit down during urination
  • Abnormal spraying of the urine


Treatment:

  • Surgical repair

Hydrocele

Fluid-filled sack in the scrotum.


Causes:

  • Fluid around the area.
  • Inflammation or injury


Symptoms:

  • Painless
  • Swollen testicle


Treatment:

  • Surgical procedure

Variocele

Widening of veins along the spermatic cord.


Causes:

  • Kidney tumor
  • Age


Symptoms:

  • Enlarged, twisted veins in scrotum
  • Painless


Treatment:

  • Scrotal support
  • Surgical repair
  • Varicocele embolization

Andrologist

  • Provides diagnostic treatment to men and reproductive health issues.
  • Conduct physical examinations.
  • Suggests lifestyle changes.
  • Performs surgical procedures.
  • Complete medical school and four years of residency training.
  • National licensing
  • Average annual pay: $189,480

Nervous System Diseases

Multiple Sclerosis

Destruction of myelin or the fatty substance protecting the nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord.


Cause:

  • Unknown


Symptoms:

  • Numbness
  • Loss of vision
  • Pain throughout body
  • Electric-shock sensations
  • Tremor
  • Slurred speech
  • fatigue
  • Dizziness


Treatment:

  • Drugs
  • Physical therapy
  • Medicine

Parkinson's Disease

When the nerve cells in the brain that makes dopamine are destroyed.


Symptoms:

  • Slow blinking
  • Drooling
  • Problems with walking
  • No expression on face
  • Shaking
  • Stooped position


Cause:

  • Genetic
  • Other diseases


Treatment:

  • No known cure.

Meningitis

Bacterial infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.


Causes:

  • Chemical irritation
  • Drug allergies
  • Fungi
  • Parasites
  • Tumors


Symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Nausea
  • Photophobia
  • Headache
  • Stiff neck


Treatment:

  • Antibiotics
  • Fluids

Nervous System Common Diseases

Neurosurgeon

  • Performs a cerebral angiogram.
  • Performs operations in hospital operating rooms.
  • Use the CAT scan or MRI scan.
  • 4 years of undergraduate school, 4 years of medical school
  • Internship
  • Average annual pay: $206,770

A neurosurgeon talks about his job

Bibliography

By: Jenna Song, Dheera Dammanna, Amisha Bhardwaj, Jihan Khalaf, Marykate Korang, Melanie Talmadge, and Vaishnavi Ramachar