Degree of Concreteness
Focused questions clearly identifies all aspects of the topic discussed. For example, in a general English class, after reading Romeo and Juliet the question asked would be "why did they kill themselves'? Answers would vary, depending on what the students have obtained, but the answers should be around their love for each other.
Solution Focused Questions
This type of process focuses on finding a solution to a problem rather than a cause. This type of solutions puts goals in place. An IEP would be an example of a solution focused assessment.
Problem Focused Questions
Problem-focused coping is a technique used to try and relieve stress by changing stressful situations. For example, if taking a test stresses you out, you can try sitting away from other people so you can concentrate better. This coping mechanism is often used by therapist to help people with anxiety problems.
Pose, Pause, Bounce, Pounce!
Pose your question. Make it worth reflecting on. Not a one word answer, but something that involves some critical thinking.
Every student needs some time to think about what is asked. Pausing for reflection time give your students a chance to evaluate what they have learned.
Call on student A for an answer, Give student A time to reflect on their answer, maybe they add something or maybe they start a class discussion.
After student A answers, call on student B for an additional answer, or to expand more on student A's answer.