Prostate Cancer

History:

In the United States in 2009, 206,640 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and 28,088 men died from it.

Infectious or Non-Infectious?

Prostate cancer is an infectious disease.

Why is this happening?

When abnormal cells in the body grow out of control it causes cancer. Prostate cancer are cancer cells from the prostate. When prostate cells spread to other parts of the body, they are called metastases.

What makes this disease happen?

When a man ages, the prostate tends to increase in size. This can cause the urethra to narrow and decrease urine flow.

Signs & Symptoms

Different people have different symptoms. Some men do not have symptoms at all.

Some symptoms of prostate cancer are-

  • Difficulty starting urination.
  • Weak or interrupted flow of urine.
  • Frequent urination, especially at night.
  • Difficulty emptying the bladder completely.
  • Pain or burning during urination.
  • Blood in the urine or semen.
  • Pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesn't go away.
  • Painful ejaculation.

Body Parts

The prostate is part of the male reproductive system, which includes the penis, prostate, and testicles. The prostate is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder.)

Treatment

There are different kinds of treatments that are available for prostate cancer. You should discuss this with your doctor and decide which would be best for you. Some common treatments are-

  • Active Surveillance (watchful waiting)- This means closely monitoring the patients prostate cancer by performing the PSA and DRE tests regularly. You only treat it if and when the prostate cancer causes symptoms or shows signs of growing.
  • Surgery (radical prostatectomy)- Prostatectomy is surgery to remove the prostate completely. It removes, not only the prostate, but the surrounding tissue as well.
  • Radiation Therapy- Radiation destroys cancer cells, or prevents them from growing, by directing high-energy X-rays at the prostate. There are two types of radiation therapy-
  1. External Radiation Therapy- a machine outside the body directs radiation at the cancer cells.
  2. Internal Radiation Therapy (brachytherapy)- radioactive seeds or pellets are surgically placed into or near the cancer to destroy the cancer cells.
  • Hormone Therapy- This treatment uses drugs, surgery, or other hormones to remove male sex hormones or block them from working, which prevents cancer cells from growing.