Traumatic Brain Injury

Jane Doe's Report of John Doe's TBI Injury and Symptoms

Type of Damage

Jane reported that John sustained a brain injury after a severe car accident one month ago. This resulted in damage to the frontal lobes. John injury was described by medical professionals as a closed head injury. During the accident John's brain collided with the inside of his skull, resulting in tearing and shearing of the frontal lobes. Consequently, John's injuries lead to damage to the axons inthe frontal lobes, which have scrambled the signals that are normally produced (Niedermeyer, 1998).

Functions of the Frontal Lobes

The frontal lobes are located on the front upper area of the brain. The frontal lobes are responsible for executive functioning tasks. These include: planning, thinking, decision making, organization, voluntary movement and selective attention (Niedermeyer, 1998). The frontal lobes are also responsible for the development of individual personality characteristics.

Observation of Symptoms

Jane reported that John has exhibited changes in his daily functioning, including planning, attention, and organization (Sembrana & Guzman, 2014). More specifically, Jane has observed that when given a list of errands or a household task, John has several false starts and often seems confused by the situation. He is also unable to maintain attention for a prolonged period of time.


Jane has also reported changes in John's personality. For example, John has expressed increasing frustration and irritability, and shows escalating aggressive behavior. In addition, John is disinterested in daily activities and shows no interest in creating future goals. He also engages in impulsive actions. Overall, Jane reports that John is generally apathetic in his behavior since the injury.

Treatment Options

Jane has inquired about potential treatment options for John. Some of the following options may be appropriate treatments for John's injury.


- Cognitive behavioral counseling to help address the aggression and impulsivity.

- Amantadine - A dopaminergic agent that has been proven to treat neuropsychiatric symptoms as a result of TBI (Kraus & Maki, 1997).

Q & A

Jane: What other symptoms should I expect, if any?

Answer: It is possible that John may have issues sleeping, dizziness or headaches. He may have issues with the mechanics of driving as well as following directions while driving. Anxiety and depression are also a possibility.


Jane: Will John's symptoms get better?

Answer: It is likely that John will recover from his injury, however because his was an axonal injury, it may take longer than if he had sustained another type of injury.



Jane: What can friends and family do to help John?

Answer: Family members can help in a number of ways. One way is to learn about TBI and frontal lobe damage, as well as the recovery process. Many useful resources can be found on the Internet. Offer constant support. This may come in the form of reminders for appointments and/or by encouraging John to use the skills he learned in treatment.

References

Sembrana, P.E., de Guzman, R.G. (2014). Personality traits of frontal lobe-damaged patients before and after injury. Asian Journal of Natural & Applied Sciences, 3(4), 47-56.


Niedermeyer, E. (1998). Frontal lobe functions and dysfunctions. Clinical Eletroencephalography, 29(2), 79-90.


Kraus, M.F., & Maki, P.M. (1997). Effect of Amantadine Hydrochloride on symptoms of frontal lobe dysfunction in brain injury: case studies and review. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 9, 222-230.