Parts of a Nuclear Submarine

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The inner hull of a submarine protects the crew from the water pressure bearing down on the submarine and the outer hull provides a streamlined shape to the submarine. Both of the hulls of a nuclear submarine are out of HY-80. This is an alloy made from nickel, molybdenum chromium that protects the submarine from the pressure of the great depths of the ocean.
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The sail is a streamline portion that rises above the main body of the submarine. It consists of several different components, including horizontal diving planes, radar masts, communications antennas, and periscopes.

Ballast Tanks are located between the two hulls that were previously explained. The tanks help control the depth of the submarine by taking on or releasing the water that hits it. Trim tanks are located in the front and the aft of the submarine are also able to take on or release water in order to keep the submarine's weight equally distributed so it doesn't sink.

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A nuclear reactor is a glorifies steam engine and is usually located around the aft of the submarine. It is protected by a thick metal casing that weight about 100 tons. An alloy inside of this is specially designed for protecting the radioactive fuel rods.

The sonar sphere is located in the front of the sub. Sonar radar helps a submarine detect other objects in the water. It works by sending out a sounds waves that will strike an object, sending a portion of the sound will be echoed back to the sub.

Atmosphere control equipment decontaminates the breathing air by getting rid of carbon dioxide and impurities.

Distilling plants purify saltwater to be used for the engine or for drinking water for the people aboard the submarine.

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The control room is the nucleus of the submarine. It contains the operational controls for all navigational, sonar, communications and weapons systems for use on the submarine. . From here, the vessel's activities are directed and they can make contact with people in hubs.

The torpedo room is where all torpedoes are stored and loaded into tubes that prepare them for launching.

The submarine's crew is housed and fed in a mess deck. The berthing area is located in the middle of the nose of the submarine, making it extremely small.

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This is how a submarine enthusiasts explains a nuclear reactor, "Within the nuclear reactor, a neutron is used to split an atom of uranium, producing energy in the form of gamma radiation and heat. A coil filled with circulating water is super heated as it's routed past the reactor. This water is under extremely high pressure, which prevents it from boiling. Inside self-contained piping, the water is directed through a secondary source of water, where it's heated again. Here, the water is converted to steam and is piped toward the turbine that generates power for the submarine. The steam is condensed again in special cooling tubes, and the resulting water flows back into the steam generator. Inside the generator, it's reheated and the process repeats. This method requires no oxygen, so the submarine doesn't need to maintain or refresh a supply of air from above the surface."