Civil War

Union vs. Confederacy-Causes and Effects of the Civil War

Three Texas Civil War Battles

  1. Battle of Palmito Ranch- Last battle of the Civil War took place at palmito Ranch in south Texas. Unfortunately this battle took place 5 weeks after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. This was ironically a confederate victory.
  2. Battle at Sabine Pass- 5000 Union soldiers were sent to invade Texas Sabine Bay. The Union hoped to capture the cities of Beaumont and Houston which were huge supply centers of the confederacy. The 47 men of the Davis Guard at Fort Griffin led by Lt. Richard Dowling stopped the invading Union navy as they entered the bay.
  3. Battle of Galveston- the decks of the ships, the Neptune and the Bayou city, were lined with cotton bales to turn them from cargo boats to war ships. Union forces were defeated art Galveston and forced to leave the island. Texas towns, farms, and factories were never occupied and therefore were not destroyed by the union.

Problems and Tensions in wartime

The tension started when the south thought that the North was intentionally trying to take them down. More reasons came into the southerners mind and to top it off the south concluded that if a Republican won the election of 1860 that most of the south would secede. The biggest problem in the war was that the Union had ordered a blockade in the south so the Confederacy could not get the supplies they needed to even have a chance at winning the war. That burned the confederacies up and created a humungous tension between the union and the Confederacy.

Wartime Economy: Economics/ Inflation-

When the War started the North had most of the money and left the South out of their plans. The South started out in the war with a disadvantage. Union- 4X the population- 22 million, 90% of nations factories, control of U.S Navy plus private trading ships, Many resources including farms to supply army, better banking, U.S government money. VS. Confederacy-that only has fighting a defensive war, psychological advantage- defending homeland, knowledge of geography, hunting/ horse riding skills, skilled military officers. Texans would raise cotton and cattle during the war and distributing them to different places before the war and at the beginning of it, but when the blockade came into place the Texans could not export any of the goods and get imports for that matter.

Women & The War Effort

The Women had to take care of everything. Factories, Plantations you name it the Women had to do it. The Women practically were the saviors or kept the Confederates alive as long as they did. The Women supplied for the men and took care of their basic health needs. Some Women also became teachers or nurses to provide more for everyone. The War effort was hard enough trying to supply everyone with food and or weapons, but with the blockade in full force the task was even harder.

Hardships on the Home front and 3 substitute items

It was very hard to get the supplies the Confederates needed with the blockade there. Imports could not come in so the people could not get the supplies. Times were very hard and items getting scarce. People had to substitute regular items because they could not get the right materials needed to make them. Instead of coffee they used roasted acorns or corn. honey became the new sugar, and they used herbs for medicine.

Unionism and Conscientious Objectors-

Conscientious Objectors-refusal to carry a fire arm and or join the army due to religious beliefs. Some of them were killed because they refused to fight. But Abraham Lincoln made a Conscription act on April 16, 1862 in the south that made the regular people find a place or job that the Conscientious objectors could work. But the revised act Oct. 1862 states that nationally the pacifists would have to pay a fee so that they did not have to fight. Thomas "Stonewall' Jackson recommended that the pacifists produce supplies. Even though they were pacifists some shakers and Quakers joined the army or combat position. The Militia act of 1862 made no provision for the Conscientious Objectors, however the 1863 Act did, the draft did not factor in the Conscientious Objectors so they were called. This act flooded in individual petitions from draftees. Edwin Stanton eased the situation by releasing the Conscientious Objectors from custody and ordered no more to be called.

Unionism- the principle of the Union. There were some Texans that were Unionists or liked the Union. Since most of the Texans were immigrants they were automatically Unionists because that is were they came from, but when Texas seceded from the U.S and joined the confederacy the unionists stayed in Texas. The most trouble the Texas Unionists was the slave issue. To the South Slaves helped the economy, but to the North it was very bad and wrongful to own slaves. Tensions were very high between the Unionists and the south. The Unionists that were caught or accused of being Unionists were hung at Gains ville which is known as The Great Hangings. Throughout the war Unionism never really died, it had its ups and downs, but always came back around.