By - Sarah Bailey

Basic Rules of the Game

Basketball is a team sport. Two teams of five players each try to score by shooting the basketball ball through a hoop elevated 10 feet above the ground. You start the game by having a jump-ball 1 player from each team (usually the tallest players) come up to middle court, the ref then throws the ball in between the players. Each player trys to tip the ball to one of their team mates by jumping and hitting the ball. The two teams play until the end of the game, the team who has more points at the end of the game wins.

Personal Fouls- Personal fouls include any type of illegal physical contact.

  • Hitting
  • Pushing
  • Slapping
  • Holding
  • Illegal pick/screen -- when an offensive player is moving. When an offensive player sticks out a limb and makes physical contact with a defender in an attempt to block the path of the defender.

Personal foul Penalties- If a player is shooting while being fouled, then he/she gets two free throws if the shot doesn't go in, but only one free throw if the shot does go in.

  • Three free throws are awarded if the player is fouled while shooting for a three-point goal and they miss their shot. If a player is fouled while shooting a three-point shot and makes it anyway, he/she is awarded one free throw. Thus he/she could score four points on the play.

  • Inbounds. If fouled while not shooting, the ball is given to the team the foul was committed upon. They get the ball at the nearest side or baseline, out of bounds, and have 5 seconds to pass the ball onto the court.

  • One & one. If the team committing the foul has seven or more fouls in the game, then the player who was fouled is awarded one free throw. If he makes his first shot, then he is awarded another free throw.

  • Ten or more fouls. If the team committing the foul has ten or more fouls, then the fouled player receives two free throws.

Positions of the Game-

  • Point Guard- The point guard needs to be the best ball handler, dribbler and passer as he/she handles the ball the most out of all the players on the team. He/she needs to bring the ball down the court and initiate offensive plays. Point guards can also be the shortest player on the team as they use their intelligence and court vision to coordinate all his/her teammates on offense.Point guards need to have a good long distance shooting, though it's not quite as crucial as for shooting guards. However, some point guards take as many shots as shooting guards.

  • Center- The centre is generally the tallest player who is positioned near the basket as he/she must be able to get up as high as possible for rebounds and is depended on for boxing out the defence to be able to get those rebounds. Offensive, the centre's goal is to get open for a pass and to shoot. They are required to block defenders, and to open other players up for driving to the basket for a shot. Centers are expected to get as many offensive rebounds and put-backs as they can.

  • Shooting Guard- The shooting guard is potentially the shortest player in the team. However, he/she has to be good at dribbling fast, passing and having court vision by seeing the court. He/she is responsible for setting up offensive plays.The shooting guard is also the player who takes the most shots. He needs to be an accurate shooter from three-point range, to gain points for his/her team.

  • Small Forward- The small forward is usually the shorter of the two forwards on the team. However, the small forward must have enough height and ability to play inside, and on top of that, play like the centers and power forwards, but also be able to guard.Small forwards are also the second or third best shooters from distance of the five positions as they also play defensive roles.

  • Power Forward- The power forwards are usually the next tallest players in the team, who are closest to the center in physical attributes and playing style, but with more speed. A forward may play under the hoop or are expected to operate in the wings and corner areas. They must be strong and comfortable with a lot of physical play and must be an effective rebounder and effective inside shooter like the center. The power forward is also expected to shoot from further distances than the center.


When playing basketball you must be able to run, jump and shoot without stopping. Doing drills/exercises can help with advancing on you skills in and out of the game.

Even though basketball most of the time isn't played year round players who are serious about playing the sport must stay fit and active. Training plays a big part of this

  • One, because the more you practicing shooting, moving in defence and offence the more muscle memory you will have of the sport keeping you in the game.

  • Two, because doing the drills and exercises keeps you active along with keeping your body in the game and preparing your muscles and your whole body for running, shooting and playing the game without stopping.

Possible Drills and Effects of Them- Exercises that increase your physical abilities .

  • Passing- The deliberate attempt to move a live ball between two teammates. Played in every game of basketball so its important to do drills/exercises that help increase your passing abilities and the distance you can pass the ball with can help you and your team.

  • Shooting- A regular jump shot is a attempt to score points by shooting the basketball into the hoop in one motion to gain points for your team. Another major part of basketball, which includes the scoring and way to win the game. Practicing shooting can increase your chances of making the shot in the game.

  • Dribbling- In Basketball, dribbling is the legal method of advancing the ball by oneself, as opposed to passing in to another player or shooting for the basket. It consists of bouncing the ball on the floor continuously with one hand while walking or running down the court. Practicing dribbling increases the speed you can dribble the ball, advancing your skill level against opponents.

  • Rebounding- When a offensive player shoots the ball, not making the shoot. When another player grabs the ball once it bounces out of the rim and or backboard of the hoop. Rebounding allows your team to gain the ball giving your team a chance to score.

  • Boxing Out- A type of basketball maneuver in which a player positions his body against an opponent, in an optimal space on the floor between the opponent and the basket, in order to secure a rebound. It is an essential skill for every player on the floor and is especially important for the centers and power forwards, whose primary goal on missed shots is to rebound.

  • Defense- Is major because its how you try to defend the other team from scoring points on your team. Practicing defensive drills helps with faster feet which allows you to move fast with the offensive players making it harder for the offense to get by you and your team to score.


Physical injuries are common in basketball, because basketball is a physical sport and an active activity, making it easy for a player to get pushed down and sprain their wrist.

Most Common Injuries-

  • Feet injuries consisting of sprained ankles, or broken bones in the foot.

  • Large amount of joint injuries such as players knees and knee caps.

  • Hip injuries are also common from a player falling on his or her side.

  • Sprains to wrists from players falling and trying to catch them selfs.

  • Players have also had many shoulder muscles be irritated from shooting too much, or over using the muscles which can cause them to become inflamed.

  • Concussions are still pretty common from players being too physical. The number one cause of a concussion is a person falling hard on his or her head, this is common in basketball because one the court is a hard surface to fall on and number two since basketball is a physical sport it is easy for players to get a too physical.

  • Finger injuries also happen sometimes just from a player falling and trying to catch them selfs, another common way is just from the player jamming their finger trying to catch the basketball. This is usually a injury that keeps players out of the game for a while depending on how bad the injury is.

Injury Prevention Strategies-

  • Warm up thoroughly before playing in a game or training at practice.

  • Always remember to stretch out before playing in a game or training to loosen muscles that can prepare your body for physical activity.

  • If you have existing pain make sure you take Motrin or something to help the body part relax or not hurt as much. If it is your knee, ankle or something you can put a brace on, always do it because it can help it from getting worse.

  • If you previously got hurt always make sure to rest before doing anything that could possibly make it worse.

  • Lastly always make sure if you are hurt don't over work yourself and make your body hurt even more because if anything it will make everything worse, and cause more pain, possibly making you stop playing because of it.