The Circulatory System

Ashley Pitts, Summer Moreno, Kiara Smith, Daisy Hernandez

Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart

  • the heart is located near the center of the thoracic (relating to the chest cavity of the animal) cavity between the lungs
  • responsible for pumping blood to all parts of the body
  • it is a funnel shaped, hollow, muscular organ that is housed in a sac called the pericardia sac
  • The apex (narrow or pointed end of the heart) of the heart is pointed toward the abdomen
  • The wall of the heart has three layers
  1. epicardium (outer layer)
  • consist of endothelial cells (relating to a thin layer of flattened cells that line the bodys organs)
2. endocardium (inner layer)

3. myocardium (middle layer)

  • the cardiac (any substance or tissue related to the heart) muscles are involuntary, striated muscles that are located in the myocardium
  • the heart is divided into the right and the left side. then each side is divided into the atrium and the ventricle.
  • a large valve called the atrioventricular valve (AV valve) is located in between the atrium and the ventricle
  • the left AV valve is also called the bicuspid (having or ending in two points)
  • the right AV valve is also called the tricuspid (having or ending in three points)
  • the aortic valve and the pulmonary valve help prevent blood from rushing back into the respective areas
  • oxygenated blood blood returns to the heart by the way of the cranial ( pertaining to the front end of the body) and the caudal (pertaining to the end or back of the body) vena cava to the right atrium
  • in the alveoli of the lungs, body waste, as carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen
  • the aorta then branches into several different arteries that carry oxygenated (enpregnated, combined, or supplied with oxygen) blood to all parts of the body
Big image

Anatomy and Physiology of the Lymphatic System

  • the thin walls of the capillaries allows fluid and gases to escape into spaces between body tissue cells where lymphoid tissue containing lymphocytes are located
  • the lymph vessels start in the tissue spaces and form larger ducts as they pass through lymph gland and nodes
  • they finally empty into large blood veins such as the cranial vena cava.
  • lymph glands, or nodes, are scattered among the lymph vessels and serve the bodies first defense mechanism against infection
  • they produce antibodies ( a proteins substance produced by the lymphoid tissue of the body in response to an antigenic stimulus) that fight against diseases.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Vascular System

  • blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to other parts of the body are called arteries
  • large arteries have thick walls and are composed of elastic like tissue
  • arteries that branch into smaller arteries are called arterioles, then the smaller arterioles are branched out into capillaries
  • arterioles have a thick smooth layer of muscle that helps control the amount of blood that each capillary receives
  • during shock arterioles dilate (to cause a structure in an animals body to enlarge or expand), allowing a large volume of blood to be contained within the capillary bed.
  • capillaries are the blood vessels that connect arteries to veins.
  • they are tiny thin waled vessels that allow all blood cells to pass through in single file.
  • there is also larger tubular connectors of arterioles to venules
  • tubulos allow more blood to flow through an area also helps warm and increases the return of blood pressure to the heart
  • veins are blood vessels that return blood to the heart from all body parts
  • capillaries unite to form small veins called venules that unite to form larger veins closer to the heart
  • veins also have small thin walls that can collapse
Big image

Anatomy and Physiology of Systems Within the Circulatory System

  • pulmonary circulation is when blood is transported through he lungs where it is oxygenated
  • aminimum amount of tissue separates blood in capillary beds from the alveoli, allowing carbon dioxide ( gaseous waste of animals metabolism) to be exchanged for oxygen from the air
  • pressure that is required for pulmonary circulation has a lower requiremnet that systematic (affecting the animals body in general) circulation
  • during systemic circulation, blood passes through the kidneys. this phase is known as renal (relating to the kidneys of the animal) circulation
  • blood also passes through the small intestine and that is known as the hepatic (relating to the liver of an animal) portal vein and it passes through the liver
  • the systemic circulatory system is complex and its functions vary with different tissue requirements
Big image

Anatomy and Physiology of the Blood

  • the expected volume of blood in domestic animals, expressed as a percentage of body weight: is 7.7 percent in cattle, 8.0 percent in sheep, and 9.7 percent in horses
  • the solids in blood plasma include inorganic (pertainging to substances not of organic origin) salts and organic substances
  • the hemoglobin int he red blood cells concentration in grams per 100 cubic centimeters of blood is 11 in sheep, 12 in cattle and swine, and 12.5 in horses
  • erythrocytes are biconcave (concave or depresses on both sides) discs that have thick circular margins and thin centers
  • levels of red blood cells production caused by poor nutrition
  • eosinophils make up less that 5 percent of the total leukocyte count.
  • eosinophils contain most of the protein histamine (compound found in animal tissue responsible for the dilation and increased permeability of blood vessels) in the blood
  • anywhere from 85 to 90 percent of the leokocytes in domestic mammals are neutrophils and lymphocytes with the total number of each being about equal
  • normal white blood cells counts, per cubic millimeter, in domestic animals are 9,000 in cattle and horses, 15,000 in swine and 8,000 in sheep
  • blood clotting, or coagulation (to cause or to thicken in coherent mass) is important to the reduction of blood loss caused by an injury
  • the solids in blood plasma also include glucose (a simple sugar that is formed that animals use to assimilate carbohydrates)
  • other causes of bad anemia results are infestation of blood sucking parasites (orgasms that live in or on and at the expense of another animal) or low levels o red blood cell production
  • cytoplasm is protoplasm of the cell outside the nucleus
  • the red blood cells of animals also contain certain antigens (the substances usually protein when foreign to the blood stream stimulates the formation of a specific antibody) of their surface that differentiate the various blood types
  • the antibodies can be passed down from the mother's milk through the colostrum (the first milk secreted by a female before and after birth) milk to the young
  • the placental (relating to the placenta) membrane of domestic animals is fairly impermeable (a tissue that will now allow a fluid to pass through it)
  • the agglutinate is the clumping together of cells, especially red blood cells
Big image

Circulatory System in Depth

  • the largest artery leaving the left ventricle of the heart carrying oxygenated blood is called the aorta.
  • the right and left coronary arteries branch from the aorta
  • the coronary arteries supply fresh blood to the heart muscle itself
  • next branch of the aorta is the branchiophalic trunk
  • the carotid arteries branch off the branchiocephalic branch
  • they extend to the animals head on either side of the animals head on either side of the neck
  • this artery supplies fresh blood to the neck and head
  • blood is then returned by the jugular vein which is on the side of the animals neck
  • leaving the heart, aorta travels upward to the thoratic vertebrae
  • then it becomes the thoratic aorta
  • it extends to the rear of animals and becomes the abdominal aorta after passing through the diagram
  • the thoratic aorta branches in the thoratic area
  • these branches provide the oxygenated blood tot he lungs (called the bronchial arteries) esophagus, ribs, and diaphragm
  • the celiac artery branches into the gastric, splenic, and heptic arteries
  • abdominal aorta branches to cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries
  • these arteries supply oxygen to the small and large intestines
  • the next big branch is the abdominal aorta that consist of the renal arteries who supply oxygenated blood to the kidneys
  • the function of the renal arteriesdoesnt only supply blood to the kidneys, but also carries large volume of blood tot he kidneys for filtration
  • renal arteries also give blood to arteries that supply blood to the reproductive systems
  • the abdominal aorta ends in the paired lumber veins and the internal and external lliac arteries.
  • the internal lliac arteries provide blood to the pelvic and hip region
  • the external lliac arteries branch into the rermoral arteries, which provide blood to hind legs.
  • the veins are always larger than the arteries and sometimes more numerous.
  • most all veins eventually empty into the caudalor cranial vena cava in returning unoxygenated blood to the right atrium or the heart.
  • veins are closer to skin then artieries so they are more visable.
  • the cranial vena cavae veins are responsible fir training the unoxygenated blood from the head, neck, forelegs, and part of the thorax, or chest cavity.
  • the caudal vena cava collects blood from the lliac, lumbar, renal, and adrenal veins to return it to the right atrium of the heart.
  • the systemio system that carries venous blood from the stomach, pancreas, small intestine, and spleen to the liver is called the hepatic portal system.
  • the portal vein carries blood to the liver from these areas to be puriried and for nutrients to be stored for future use. the portal vein branches into smaller.
  • venules and finally into the capillary beds or the liver.
  • the capillars going into the hepatic vein, which carries unoxygenated blood to the cuadal vena cava.
Big image