Language Arts 6 Grade
What we've learned this year! By: Kennedy Comeaux
Chapter 1: The Sentence/ Subject, Predicate, and Kinds of Sentences.
A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a complete thought.
Ex. my family and I are raising a dog
Sentence- My family and I are raising a dog.
The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about. The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.
Ex. Jonny likes to tell jokes.
Simple subject- Jonny
The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject. The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group in the complete predicate.
Ex. My mom helped me with my homework.
Predicate- helped me with my homework.
Simple predicate- helped
A compound verb consist of two or more verd that are joined by a conjunction that have the same subject.
Ex. Ava watched 30 minutes of TV but still made it to school on time.
Compound verb- watched, made
A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period. An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point. An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark. An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation mark.
Ex. Ava is smart. - Declarative
Ex. Katelyn, do your homework. -imperative
Ex. Addison, what are you doing this afternoon? - Interrogative
Ex. Jonny is so funny! - Exclamatory
Chapter 2: Part of Speech
Ex. The backpack is pink. - Noun is backpack.
A pronoun is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.
Ex. Jonny is funny and he is good at basketball. - He is the pronoun because it is replacing Jonny
An adjective is a word that is used to modify a noun or pronoun.
Ex.Katelyn is crazy. - Crazi is the adjective because it is describing Katelyn
Chapter 3: More Parts of Speech
Ex. Addison ran to get the baseball. - The verb is ran because he is doing something.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
Ex. Katelyn ran very fast at her track meet. -Fast is the adverb because it is describing how she ran.
A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and another word in the sentence.
Ex. LaBron hit the ball over the fence. - Over is the preposition because that is where he h it the ball.
A conjunction that joins words or groups of words.
Ex. Katelyn and Kennedy went shopping. - And is the conjunction because it connects Katelyn and Kennedy.
An interjection is a word that expresses emotion.
Ex. Oops! I dropped the vase! - Oops is the interjection because it expresses how that person felt when they dropped the vase.
Chapter 4: The Phrase and the Clause
Ex. Ava went to the ballpark. - To the ballpark is the phrase.
A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.
Ex. Please hand me the book on that desk.- on that desk is the prepositional phrase.
A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun is called an adjective phrase.
Ex. Lots of ice fell from the roof. -Of ice is the adjective phrase.
A preposition phrase that is used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called an adverb phrase.
Ex. The statue is next to the mountain. - Next to the mountain is the adverb phrase.
A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.
Ex. She went to the mall and she went to the restaurant. - She went to the mall is the clause.
An independent (or main) clause expresses a verb and its subject that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.
Ex. After Bob fed the dog, he went play outside. - He went play outside is the independent clause.
A subordinate (or dependant) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.
Ex. We all went to the party that Bella invited us to. - that Bella invited us to the the subordinate clause.
An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.
Ex. A dog that has black fur. - that has black fur is the adjective clause.
An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, and an adverb.
Ex. With an excited look, the girl had a big smile and was ready 10 minutes early.- With and excited look is the adverb clause
A simple sentence has one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.
Ex. Canada and Mexico are in North America.- Canada and Mexico are the single subjects.
A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses, usually joined by a comma and a connecting word.
Ex. She forgot her backpack, but her mom went bring it do her at school.- , but starts the second part to the sentence.
A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.
Ex. Before they went on the trip, they planned it out.- Before they went on the trip is the subordinate clause.
A sentence with two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause is a compound- complex sentence.
Ex. I helped clean the kitchen and Blake cleaned the living room.- This is a complex sentence.
Chapter 5: Complements
Ex. The old jewelry box was an antique.- antique is the complement.
A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.
Ex. Ava needed paint, paint brushes, and a canvas for her art class.- paint, paint brushes, and canvas are the direct object.
An indirect object is a noun,pronoun, or word group that usually comes between the verb and the direct object. An indirect object tells whom or to what or for whom or for what the action of the verb is done.
Ex. Emma sent Jacob Sartorius a fan letter. -Jacob Sartorius is the indirect object.
A subject complement is a word or word group that is the predicate and that identifies or describes the subject.
Ex. That store appears very busy.- busy is the subject complement.
A predicate nominative is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it.
Ex. My friend became a cheerleader. - cheer leader is the predicate nominative.
A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.
Ex. I think that Jacob is American.- American is the predicate adjective
Chapter 6: Agreement
Ex. Shoe- singular, cookies- plural.
Singular subjects agree in number with its subject. Plural subjects take plural verbs.
Ex. flag waves- singular, maps show- plural
The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase following the subject.
Ex. The pink glasses are my favorite. - glasses are
The following indefinite pronouns are singular- anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something.
Ex. Neither of the teams (is, are) on the field. - is
When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure that the verb agrees with it.
Ex. There (was, were) a baby rabbit hiding in the grass. - rabbit was
A pronoun should agree in gender with its antecedent.
Ex. Neither Bella nor Ava had their English book. - Bella and Ava- their
Chapter 7: Using verbs correctly
The four principle parts of a verb are the base form, the present participle, the past, and the past participle.
Ex. wash, washing, washed, have washed- all the principle parts of "wash."
The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or the state of being that is expressed by the verb.
Ex. The trolley noisily rolled down the track- past
Chapter 8: Using pronons properly
Use the subject form for a pronoun that is the subject of a verb.
Ex. Brad and I wrote a skit based on the myth about Pygmalion. - I
Use the object form for a pronoun that is the indirect object of a verb.
Ex. Mom bake us some pancakes. - us
Use the object form for a pronoun that is the object of a preposition.
Ex. Someone should have sent her a letter. - her
Chapter 9:Using modifiers correctly
Adjectives make the meanings of a noun and pronouns more specific.
Ex. That one is my favorite.- that
Adverbs make the meanings of verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs more specific.
Ex. The car backfired loudly. - loudly
The positive degree is used when only one thing is being modified and no comparison is being made.
Ex. Diary of a Wimpy Kid is a good book. - good
The superlative degree is used when three or more things are being compared.
Ex. My dog is the cutest dog ever. cutest