Down Syndrome

By Ayman Marah

What causes Down Syndrome

Down Syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality which is caused by an extra chromosome on chromosome number 21.

What are the physical effects of Down Syndrome?

  • Decreased or poor muscle tone
  • Short neck, with excess skin at the back of the neck
  • Flattened facial profile and nose
  • Small head, ears, and mouth
  • Upward slanting eyes, often with a skin fold that comes out from the upper eyelid and covers the inner corner of the eye
  • White spots on the colored part of the eye (called Brushfield spots)
  • Wide, short hands with short fingers
  • A single, deep, crease across the palm of the hand
  • A deep groove between the first and second toes
Who is usually affected by the disease; males, females, both? Both

Who is usually the carrier of the disease; mother, father, both, neither? Neither usually pass the disease.

What are the special needs of the people with the disorder? Students with Down syndrome may:


  • need to go to school nurse for medications when necessary
  • miss class time due to frequent medical appointments
  • have behavior issues
  • need visual and auditory accommodations for classroom instruction
  • require physical, occupational, and speech therapies
  • need extra time and assistance with class work
  • require therapeutic staff support in the classroom

Is there a cure? No there is no current cure for down syndrome

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